The name of this superfamily has been modified since the most recent official CATH+ release (v4_3_0). At the point of the last release, this superfamily was named:

"
Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead
".

Functional Families

Overview of the Structural Clusters (SC) and Functional Families within this CATH Superfamily. Clusters with a representative structure are represented by a filled circle.
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FunFam 2: Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase

Please note: GO annotations are assigned to the full protein sequence rather than individual protein domains. Since a given protein can contain multiple domains, it is possible that some of the annotations below come from additional domains that occur in the same protein, but have been classified elsewhere in CATH.

There are 26 GO terms relating to "molecular function"

The search results have been sorted with the annotations that are found most frequently at the top of the list. The results can be filtered by typing text into the search box at the top of the table.
GO Term Annotations Evidence
Xanthine oxidase activity GO:0004855
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + hydrogen peroxide.
5 P22985 (/ISS) P47990 (/ISS) P80457 (/ISS) Q00519 (/ISS) Q9MYW6 (/ISS)
Molybdopterin cofactor binding GO:0043546
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum (Mo-molybdopterin) or tungsten ion (W-molybdopterin) coordinated by one or two molybdopterin ligands.
5 P22985 (/ISS) P47990 (/ISS) P80457 (/ISS) Q00519 (/ISS) Q9MYW6 (/ISS)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding GO:0050660
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with FAD, flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in either the oxidized form, FAD, or the reduced form, FADH2.
5 P22985 (/ISS) P47990 (/ISS) P80457 (/ISS) Q00519 (/ISS) Q9MYW6 (/ISS)
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding GO:0051537
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a 2 iron, 2 sulfur (2Fe-2S) cluster; this cluster consists of two iron atoms, with two inorganic sulfur atoms found between the irons and acting as bridging ligands.
5 P22985 (/ISS) P47990 (/ISS) P80457 (/ISS) Q00519 (/ISS) Q9MYW6 (/ISS)
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0004854
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+.
4 P47990 (/ISS) P80457 (/ISS) Q00519 (/ISS) Q9MYW6 (/ISS)
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0004854
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+.
3 P22985 (/IDA) P47989 (/IDA) Q00519 (/IDA)
Molybdopterin cofactor binding GO:0043546
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum (Mo-molybdopterin) or tungsten ion (W-molybdopterin) coordinated by one or two molybdopterin ligands.
3 P22985 (/IDA) P47989 (/IDA) P80457 (/IDA)
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding GO:0051537
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a 2 iron, 2 sulfur (2Fe-2S) cluster; this cluster consists of two iron atoms, with two inorganic sulfur atoms found between the irons and acting as bridging ligands.
3 P22985 (/IDA) P47989 (/IDA) P80457 (/IDA)
Xanthine oxidase activity GO:0004855
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + hydrogen peroxide.
2 P22985 (/IDA) P47989 (/IDA)
Protein homodimerization activity GO:0042803
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein to form a homodimer.
2 P22985 (/IDA) P80457 (/IDA)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding GO:0050660
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with FAD, flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in either the oxidized form, FAD, or the reduced form, FADH2.
2 P22985 (/IDA) P47989 (/IDA)
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0004854
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0004854
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+.
1 P47990 (/TAS)
Xanthine oxidase activity GO:0004855
Catalysis of the reaction: xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + hydrogen peroxide.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Protein binding GO:0005515
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
1 Q00519 (/IPI)
Oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491
Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, a reversible chemical reaction in which the oxidation state of an atom or atoms within a molecule is altered. One substrate acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and becomes oxidized, while the other acts as hydrogen or electron acceptor and becomes reduced.
1 Q00519 (/IDA)
Molybdenum ion binding GO:0030151
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with molybdenum (Mo) ions.
1 P80457 (/IDA)
Protein homodimerization activity GO:0042803
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein to form a homodimer.
1 P47989 (/IPI)
Protein homodimerization activity GO:0042803
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein to form a homodimer.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Molybdopterin cofactor binding GO:0043546
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum (Mo-molybdopterin) or tungsten ion (W-molybdopterin) coordinated by one or two molybdopterin ligands.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Nitrite reductase (NO-forming) activity GO:0050421
Catalysis of the reaction: nitric oxide + H2O + ferricytochrome c = nitrite + ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+.
1 P22985 (/IDA)
Nitrite reductase (NO-forming) activity GO:0050421
Catalysis of the reaction: nitric oxide + H2O + ferricytochrome c = nitrite + ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding GO:0050660
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with FAD, flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in either the oxidized form, FAD, or the reduced form, FADH2.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding GO:0051537
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a 2 iron, 2 sulfur (2Fe-2S) cluster; this cluster consists of two iron atoms, with two inorganic sulfur atoms found between the irons and acting as bridging ligands.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Hypoxanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0070674
Catalysis of the reaction: hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O = xanthine + NADH + H+.
1 P47990 (/TAS)
FAD binding GO:0071949
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the oxidized form, FAD, of flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.
1 P80457 (/IDA)

There are 40 GO terms relating to "biological process"

The search results have been sorted with the annotations that are found most frequently at the top of the list. The results can be filtered by typing text into the search box at the top of the table.
GO Term Annotations Evidence
Xanthine catabolic process GO:0009115
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of xanthine, 2,6-dihydroxypurine, a purine formed in the metabolic breakdown of guanine but not present in nucleic acids.
5 P22985 (/ISS) P47990 (/ISS) P80457 (/ISS) Q00519 (/ISS) Q9MYW6 (/ISS)
Xanthine catabolic process GO:0009115
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of xanthine, 2,6-dihydroxypurine, a purine formed in the metabolic breakdown of guanine but not present in nucleic acids.
2 P22985 (/IDA) P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001933
Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of addition of phosphate groups to amino acids within a protein.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001933
Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of addition of phosphate groups to amino acids within a protein.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation GO:0001937
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation GO:0001937
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Hypoxanthine oxidation GO:0006150
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of hypoxanthine to xanthine and thence to uric acid.
1 P22985 (/IDA)
Hypoxanthine oxidation GO:0006150
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of hypoxanthine to xanthine and thence to uric acid.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Purine nucleotide catabolic process GO:0006195
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a purine nucleotide, a compound consisting of nucleoside (a purine base linked to a deoxyribose or ribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate group at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of the sugar.
1 P47989 (/TAS)
Activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919
Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme cysteine-type endopeptidase in the context of an apoptotic process.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919
Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme cysteine-type endopeptidase in the context of an apoptotic process.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Aging GO:0007568
A developmental process that is a deterioration and loss of function over time. Aging includes loss of functions such as resistance to disease, homeostasis, and fertility, as well as wear and tear. Aging includes cellular senescence, but is more inclusive. May precede death and may succeed developmental maturation (GO:0021700).
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Lactation GO:0007595
The regulated release of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
1 Q00519 (/IMP)
Xanthine catabolic process GO:0009115
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of xanthine, 2,6-dihydroxypurine, a purine formed in the metabolic breakdown of guanine but not present in nucleic acids.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Response to heat GO:0009408
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a heat stimulus, a temperature stimulus above the optimal temperature for that organism.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Response to aluminum ion GO:0010044
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an aluminum ion stimulus.
1 P22985 (/IDA)
Response to aluminum ion GO:0010044
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an aluminum ion stimulus.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629
Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629
Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Regulation of epithelial cell differentiation GO:0030856
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell differentiation.
1 Q00519 (/IMP)
Response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipopolysaccharide stimulus; lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Urate biosynthetic process GO:0034418
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of urate, the anion of uric acid, 2,6,8-trioxypurine.
1 P47990 (/TAS)
Response to carbon monoxide GO:0034465
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a carbon monoxide (CO) stimulus.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Response to hydrogen peroxide GO:0042542
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulus.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation GO:0045602
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell differentiation.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation GO:0045602
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell differentiation.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051898
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein kinase B signaling, a series of reactions mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051898
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein kinase B signaling, a series of reactions mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Oxidation-reduction process GO:0055114
A metabolic process that results in the removal or addition of one or more electrons to or from a substance, with or without the concomitant removal or addition of a proton or protons.
1 Q00519 (/IDA)
Cellular response to interleukin-1 GO:0071347
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an interleukin-1 stimulus.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Cellular response to tumor necrosis factor GO:0071356
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a tumor necrosis factor stimulus.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Response to azide GO:0097184
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an azide stimulus.
1 P22985 (/IEP)
Positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade GO:1900745
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of p38MAPK cascade.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade GO:1900745
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of p38MAPK cascade.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway GO:1900747
Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway GO:1900747
Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process GO:2000379
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of reactive oxygen species metabolic process.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process GO:2000379
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of reactive oxygen species metabolic process.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of vasculogenesis GO:2001213
Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vasculogenesis.
1 P47989 (/IDA)
Negative regulation of vasculogenesis GO:2001213
Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vasculogenesis.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)

There are 8 GO terms relating to "cellular component"

The search results have been sorted with the annotations that are found most frequently at the top of the list. The results can be filtered by typing text into the search box at the top of the table.
GO Term Annotations Evidence
Extracellular space GO:0005615
That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.
2 P22985 (/IDA) P80457 (/IDA)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
2 P47989 (/TAS) P47990 (/TAS)
Xanthine dehydrogenase complex GO:0002197
A homodimeric protein complex having xanthine dehydrogenase activity.
1 P80457 (/IDA)
Extracellular space GO:0005615
That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.
1 P47989 (/HDA)
Extracellular space GO:0005615
That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
1 P22985 (/IDA)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
1 Q00519 (/ISO)
Sarcoplasmic reticulum GO:0016529
A fine reticular network of membrane-limited elements that pervades the sarcoplasm of a muscle cell; continuous over large portions of the cell and with the nuclear envelope; that part of the endoplasmic reticulum specialized for calcium release, uptake and storage.
1 Q00519 (/IDA)