The name of this superfamily has been modified since the most recent official CATH+ release (v4_2_0). At the point of the last release, this superfamily was named:

"
P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases
".

Functional Families

Overview of the Structural Clusters (SC) and Functional Families within this CATH Superfamily. Clusters with a representative structure are represented by a filled circle.
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FunFam 627923: ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FtsH

Please note: GO annotations are assigned to the full protein sequence rather than individual protein domains. Since a given protein can contain multiple domains, it is possible that some of the annotations below come from additional domains that occur in the same protein, but have been classified elsewhere in CATH.

There are 96 GO terms relating to "molecular function"

The search results have been sorted with the annotations that are found most frequently at the top of the list. The results can be filtered by typing text into the search box at the top of the table.
GO Term Annotations Evidence
Protein binding GO:0005515
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
40 F4IAE9 (/IPI) F4IXH3 (/IPI) O17071 (/IPI) O43933 (/IPI) O76371 (/IPI) P17980 (/IPI) P24004 (/IPI) P25694 (/IPI) P32795 (/IPI) P33297 (/IPI)
(30 more)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
32 P03974 (/ISS) P17980 (/ISS) P24004 (/ISS) P33297 (/ISS) P33299 (/ISS) P40341 (/ISS) P46472 (/ISS) P53549 (/ISS) P62195 (/ISS) P90532 (/ISS)
(22 more)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
17 O44008 (/IDA) P0AAI3 (/IDA) P23787 (/IDA) P25694 (/IDA) P32794 (/IDA) P35998 (/IDA) P39925 (/IDA) P40341 (/IDA) P46462 (/IDA) P46468 (/IDA)
(7 more)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
14 A0A1D8PR43 (/ISO) O14126 (/ISO) O14325 (/ISO) O42931 (/ISO) O74941 (/ISO) P41836 (/ISO) P46471 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO) Q4Q0X8 (/ISO) Q4Q1T9 (/ISO)
(4 more)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
9 M9PEE1 (/NAS) O14114 (/NAS) O60058 (/NAS) O74445 (/NAS) P91638 (/NAS) Q7KU82 (/NAS) Q9C0W2 (/NAS) Q9P3A7 (/NAS) Q9VS62 (/NAS)
ATP-dependent peptidase activity GO:0004176
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, to drive the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
8 F4K9Q6 (/ISS) Q39102 (/ISS) Q84WU8 (/ISS) Q8IKI9 (/ISS) Q8W585 (/ISS) Q9FGM0 (/ISS) Q9FIM2 (/ISS) Q9SD67 (/ISS)
Transcription factor binding GO:0008134
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
8 P62194 (/ISS) P62196 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS) Q4RG45 (/ISS) Q6AZC1 (/ISS) Q6AZU7 (/ISS) Q6P380 (/ISS)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
8 O18413 (/ISM) Q7KMQ0 (/ISM) Q8SZ19 (/ISM) Q9V3V6 (/ISM) Q9VA54 (/ISM) Q9VTQ9 (/ISM) Q9W414 (/ISM) Q9XZC3 (/ISM)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding GO:0031531
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a tripeptide hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin by the anterior pituitary.
8 P62194 (/ISS) P62196 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS) Q4RG45 (/ISS) Q6AZC1 (/ISS) Q6AZU7 (/ISS) Q6P380 (/ISS)
Metalloendopeptidase activity GO:0004222
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.
7 Q2GFA1 (/ISS) Q2GIT4 (/ISS) Q3Z9G3 (/ISS) Q81VX5 (/ISS) Q8IQQ9 (/ISS) Q8T4G5 (/ISS) Q9N3T5 (/ISS)
Identical protein binding GO:0042802
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein or proteins.
7 O17071 (/IPI) P17980 (/IPI) P25694 (/IPI) P54609 (/IPI) P54812 (/IPI) P55072 (/IPI) P62333 (/IPI)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
5 P24004 (/IMP) P39925 (/IMP) P40341 (/IMP) P46462 (/IMP) P55072 (/IMP)
ATP binding GO:0005524
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
4 P40341 (/IDA) P46462 (/IDA) Q01853 (/IDA) Q8I526 (/IDA)
Metallopeptidase activity GO:0008237
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.
4 Q2KJI7 (/ISS) Q8JZQ2 (/ISS) Q8MT03 (/ISS) Q9W4W8 (/ISS)
Endopeptidase activity GO:0004175
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain.
3 O42931 (/ISO) O74445 (/ISO) P41836 (/ISO)
Endopeptidase activity GO:0004175
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain.
3 Q8IEK3 (/ISS) Q8IEQ1 (/ISS) Q8II60 (/ISS)
ATP binding GO:0005524
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
3 O43933 (/IMP) P46462 (/IMP) Q01853 (/IMP)
Metallopeptidase activity GO:0008237
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.
3 P39925 (/IMP) P40341 (/IMP) Q9Y4W6 (/IMP)
ATPase activity GO:0016887
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2 H+. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
3 P55072 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Identical protein binding GO:0042802
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein or proteins.
3 O88685 (/ISO) P62334 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO)
Protein heterodimerization activity GO:0046982
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
3 A0A1D8PR43 (/ISO) Q4X1F5 (/ISO) Q6FRE6 (/ISO)
RNA polymerase I regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0001163
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific sequence of DNA that is part of a regulatory region that controls the transcription of a gene or cistron by RNA polymerase I.
2 Q8SZ19 (/IDA) Q9W414 (/IDA)
ATP binding GO:0005524
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
2 O74445 (/ISO) Q5BL07 (/ISO)
ATP binding GO:0005524
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
2 Q581V6 (/ISS) Q9HGM3 (/ISS)
Transcription factor binding GO:0008134
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
2 P62195 (/IPI) Q63347 (/IPI)
Metallopeptidase activity GO:0008237
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/ISO) Q9HGM3 (/ISO)
TBP-class protein binding GO:0017025
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a member of the class of TATA-binding proteins (TBP), including any of the TBP-related factors (TRFs).
2 P62198 (/IPI) Q63347 (/IPI)
Protein domain specific binding GO:0019904
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific domain of a protein.
2 P53549 (/IDA) Q01939 (/IDA)
Polyubiquitin binding GO:0031593
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a polymer of ubiqutin.
2 P55072 (/IDA) Q01853 (/IDA)
Protein complex binding GO:0032403
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
2 P23787 (/IPI) P46462 (/IPI)
Histone binding GO:0042393
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a histone, any of a group of water-soluble proteins found in association with the DNA of plant and animal chromosomes. They are involved in the condensation and coiling of chromosomes during cell division and have also been implicated in nonspecific suppression of gene activity.
2 F4IAE9 (/IDA) P40340 (/IDA)
ADP binding GO:0043531
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ADP, adenosine 5'-diphosphate.
2 P46462 (/IMP) Q01853 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin-specific protease binding GO:1990381
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin-specific protease.
2 P55072 (/IPI) Q01853 (/IPI)
Chromatin binding GO:0003682
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.
1 P40340 (/IDA)
Chromatin binding GO:0003682
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.
1 P40340 (/IMP)
Transcription cofactor activity GO:0003712
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a regulatory transcription factor and also with the basal transcription machinery in order to modulate transcription. Cofactors generally do not bind the template nucleic acid, but rather mediate protein-protein interactions between regulatory transcription factors and the basal transcription machinery.
1 Q8I4U5 (/ISS)
RNA binding GO:0003723
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an RNA molecule or a portion thereof.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
RNA binding GO:0003723
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an RNA molecule or a portion thereof.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
ATP-dependent peptidase activity GO:0004176
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, to drive the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
1 Q8I526 (/IDA)
ATP-dependent peptidase activity GO:0004176
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, to drive the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
1 P32795 (/IGI)
ATP-dependent peptidase activity GO:0004176
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, to drive the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
1 P32795 (/IMP)
ATP-dependent peptidase activity GO:0004176
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, to drive the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
1 O59824 (/ISO)
Metalloendopeptidase activity GO:0004222
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.
1 Q8I526 (/IDA)
Metalloendopeptidase activity GO:0004222
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.
1 Q920A7 (/ISA)
Signal transducer activity GO:0004871
Conveys a signal across a cell to trigger a change in cell function or state. A signal is a physical entity or change in state that is used to transfer information in order to trigger a response.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IC)
Receptor binding GO:0005102
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one or more specific sites on a receptor molecule, a macromolecule that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
1 P46462 (/IDA)
Receptor binding GO:0005102
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one or more specific sites on a receptor molecule, a macromolecule that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
1 P62196 (/IPI)
Calmodulin binding GO:0005516
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with calmodulin, a calcium-binding protein with many roles, both in the calcium-bound and calcium-free states.
1 Q9LET7 (/IDA)
Calmodulin binding GO:0005516
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with calmodulin, a calcium-binding protein with many roles, both in the calcium-bound and calcium-free states.
1 Q9LET7 (/TAS)
Protein C-terminus binding GO:0008022
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein C-terminus, the end of any peptide chain at which the 1-carboxy function of a constituent amino acid is not attached in peptide linkage to another amino-acid residue.
1 O43933 (/IPI)
Protein C-terminus binding GO:0008022
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein C-terminus, the end of any peptide chain at which the 1-carboxy function of a constituent amino acid is not attached in peptide linkage to another amino-acid residue.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Transcription factor binding GO:0008134
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
1 P62195 (/IDA)
Transcription factor binding GO:0008134
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
1 P62196 (/ISA)
Transcription factor binding GO:0008134
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
1 P62196 (/ISO)
Peptidase activity GO:0008233
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond. A peptide bond is a covalent bond formed when the carbon atom from the carboxyl group of one amino acid shares electrons with the nitrogen atom from the amino group of a second amino acid.
1 P37476 (/IDA)
Peptidase activity GO:0008233
Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond. A peptide bond is a covalent bond formed when the carbon atom from the carboxyl group of one amino acid shares electrons with the nitrogen atom from the amino group of a second amino acid.
1 F4K9Q6 (/IMP)
Zinc ion binding GO:0008270
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with zinc (Zn) ions.
1 P0AAI3 (/IDA)
Zinc ion binding GO:0008270
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with zinc (Zn) ions.
1 F4K9Q6 (/ISS)
Protein phosphatase regulator activity GO:0019888
Modulates the activity of a protein phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyzes of the removal of a phosphate group from a protein substrate molecule.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Protein phosphatase binding GO:0019903
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein phosphatase.
1 P55072 (/IPI)
Protein phosphatase binding GO:0019903
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein phosphatase.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Protein domain specific binding GO:0019904
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific domain of a protein.
1 P55072 (/IPI)
Protein domain specific binding GO:0019904
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific domain of a protein.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Manganese ion binding GO:0030145
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with manganese (Mn) ions.
1 P0AAI3 (/IDA)
Protein binding, bridging GO:0030674
The binding activity of a molecule that brings together two or more protein molecules, or a protein and another macromolecule or complex, through a selective, non-covalent, often stoichiometric interaction, permitting those molecules to function in a coordinated way.
1 P62333 (/NAS)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding GO:0031531
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a tripeptide hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin by the anterior pituitary.
1 P62195 (/IPI)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding GO:0031531
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a tripeptide hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin by the anterior pituitary.
1 P62196 (/ISO)
Polyubiquitin binding GO:0031593
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a polymer of ubiqutin.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding GO:0031625
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin protein ligase enzyme, any of the E3 proteins.
1 P55072 (/IPI)
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding GO:0031625
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin protein ligase enzyme, any of the E3 proteins.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Protein complex binding GO:0032403
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
1 O43933 (/IDA)
Protein complex binding GO:0032403
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Protein complex binding GO:0032403
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
1 Q6GL04 (/ISS)
Deubiquitinase activator activity GO:0035800
Increases the activity of deubiquitinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin sequences.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Deubiquitinase activator activity GO:0035800
Increases the activity of deubiquitinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin sequences.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
K48-linked polyubiquitin binding GO:0036435
Interacting selectively and non-covalently and non-covalently with a polymer of ubiquitin formed by linkages between lysine residues at position 48 of the ubiquitin monomers.
1 Q01853 (/IDA)
MHC class I protein binding GO:0042288
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules; a set of molecules displayed on cell surfaces that are responsible for lymphocyte recognition and antigen presentation.
1 Q01853 (/IDA)
Histone binding GO:0042393
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a histone, any of a group of water-soluble proteins found in association with the DNA of plant and animal chromosomes. They are involved in the condensation and coiling of chromosomes during cell division and have also been implicated in nonspecific suppression of gene activity.
1 P40340 (/IMP)
ATPase activity, coupled GO:0042623
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate; this reaction directly drives some other reaction, for example ion transport across a membrane.
1 O43933 (/IMP)
ATPase activity, coupled GO:0042623
Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate; this reaction directly drives some other reaction, for example ion transport across a membrane.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Identical protein binding GO:0042802
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein or proteins.
1 P46462 (/IDA)
Identical protein binding GO:0042802
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein or proteins.
1 Q01853 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin binding GO:0043130
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ubiquitin, a protein that when covalently bound to other cellular proteins marks them for proteolytic degradation.
1 P25694 (/IDA)
Ubiquitin binding GO:0043130
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ubiquitin, a protein that when covalently bound to other cellular proteins marks them for proteolytic degradation.
1 P46468 (/TAS)
CTPase activity GO:0043273
Catalysis of the reaction: CTP + H2O = CDP + phosphate. May or may not be coupled to another reaction.
1 P0AAI3 (/IDA)
Ubiquitin-like protein ligase binding GO:0044389
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin-like protein ligase, such as ubiquitin-ligase.
1 P55072 (/IPI)
Ubiquitin-like protein ligase binding GO:0044389
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin-like protein ligase, such as ubiquitin-ligase.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Protein heterodimerization activity GO:0046982
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
1 P24004 (/IMP)
Protein heterodimerization activity GO:0046982
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
1 P24004 (/IPI)
Unfolded protein binding GO:0051082
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an unfolded protein.
1 Q9Y4W6 (/TAS)
Binding, bridging GO:0060090
The binding activity of a molecule that brings together two or more molecules through a selective, non-covalent, often stoichiometric interaction, permitting those molecules to function in a coordinated way.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IPI)
Lysine-acetylated histone binding GO:0070577
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a histone in which a lysine residue has been modified by acetylation.
1 Q9ULI0 (/IDA)
Lysine-acetylated histone binding GO:0070577
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a histone in which a lysine residue has been modified by acetylation.
1 E9Q166 (/ISO)
BAT3 complex binding GO:1904288
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a BAT3 complex.
1 P55072 (/IPI)
BAT3 complex binding GO:1904288
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a BAT3 complex.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Ubiquitin-specific protease binding GO:1990381
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin-specific protease.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)

There are 319 GO terms relating to "biological process"

The search results have been sorted with the annotations that are found most frequently at the top of the list. The results can be filtered by typing text into the search box at the top of the table.
GO Term Annotations Evidence
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
17 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) P62194 (/ISS) P62196 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q4RG45 (/ISS)
(7 more)
Proteolysis GO:0006508
The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds.
12 P34124 (/ISS) Q2GFA1 (/ISS) Q2GIT4 (/ISS) Q2KJI7 (/ISS) Q3Z9G3 (/ISS) Q5LNU8 (/ISS) Q81VX5 (/ISS) Q8II60 (/ISS) Q8IQQ9 (/ISS) Q8MT03 (/ISS)
(2 more)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
10 P46472 (/ISS) P90532 (/ISS) Q18787 (/ISS) Q4R4R0 (/ISS) Q5E9F9 (/ISS) Q5R8D7 (/ISS) Q86JA1 (/ISS) Q8I4U5 (/ISS) Q8IEK3 (/ISS) Q8IEQ1 (/ISS)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
9 O17071 (/IMP) O18413 (/IMP) P25694 (/IMP) P55072 (/IMP) Q7KMQ0 (/IMP) Q8SZ19 (/IMP) Q9V3V6 (/IMP) Q9W414 (/IMP) Q9XZC3 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway GO:0030433
The series of steps necessary to target endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein ubiquitination necessary for correct substrate transfer, transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
8 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) P90532 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Double-strand break repair GO:0006302
The repair of double-strand breaks in DNA via homologous and nonhomologous mechanisms to reform a continuous DNA helix.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Autophagy GO:0006914
The process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm; allows for both recycling of macromolecular constituents under conditions of cellular stress and remodeling the intracellular structure for cell differentiation.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0006974
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Protein ubiquitination GO:0016567
The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine GO:0018279
The glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine forming N4-glycosyl-L-asparagine; the most common form is N-acetylglucosaminyl asparagine; N-acetylgalactosaminyl asparagine and N4 glucosyl asparagine also occur. This modification typically occurs in extracellular peptides with an N-X-(ST) motif. Partial modification has been observed to occur with cysteine, rather than serine or threonine, in the third position; secondary structure features are important, and proline in the second or fourth positions inhibits modification.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Translesion synthesis GO:0019985
The replication of damaged DNA by synthesis across a lesion in the template strand; a specialized DNA polymerase or replication complex inserts a defined nucleotide across from the lesion which allows DNA synthesis to continue beyond the lesion. This process can be mutagenic depending on the damaged nucleotide and the inserted nucleotide.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
ERAD pathway GO:0036503
The protein catabolic pathway which targets endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. It begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein modifications necessary for correct substrate transfer (e.g. ubiquitination), transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Autophagosome maturation GO:0097352
The process in which autophagosomes, double-membraned vacuoles containing cytoplasmic material fuse with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bounded structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole. Fusion provides an acidic environment and digestive function to the interior of the autophagosome.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
6 P33297 (/IMP) Q38A02 (/IMP) Q38BP7 (/IMP) Q7KN62 (/IMP) Q9NC95 (/IMP) Q9NC97 (/IMP)
Proteasomal protein catabolic process GO:0010498
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds that is mediated by the proteasome.
6 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
6 O18413 (/IC) Q7KMQ0 (/IC) Q8SZ19 (/IC) Q9V3V6 (/IC) Q9W414 (/IC) Q9XZC3 (/IC)
Proteolysis GO:0006508
The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds.
5 P39925 (/IMP) P40341 (/IMP) P9WQN3 (/IMP) Q7KN62 (/IMP) Q9Y4W6 (/IMP)
Protein deubiquitination GO:0016579
The removal of one or more ubiquitin groups from a protein.
5 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Transmembrane transport GO:0055085
The process in which a solute is transported across a lipid bilayer, from one side of a membrane to the other
5 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
MAPK cascade GO:0000165
An intracellular protein kinase cascade containing at least a MAPK, a MAPKK and a MAP3K. The cascade can also contain two additional tiers: the upstream MAP4K and the downstream MAP Kinase-activated kinase (MAPKAPK). The kinases in each tier phosphorylate and activate the kinases in the downstream tier to transmit a signal within a cell.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Protein polyubiquitination GO:0000209
Addition of multiple ubiquitin groups to a protein, forming a ubiquitin chain.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway GO:0002223
Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of binding to a C-type lectin receptor capable of cellular activation.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent GO:0002479
The process in which an antigen-presenting cell expresses a peptide antigen of exogenous origin on its cell surface in association with an MHC class I protein complex following intracellular transport via a TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) pathway. The peptide is typically a fragment of a larger exogenous protein which has been degraded within the cell and is dependent on TAP transport from the cytosol to ER for association with the MHC class I molecule. Class I here refers to classical class I molecules.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Proteolysis GO:0006508
The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds.
4 O14126 (/NAS) O42931 (/NAS) O74445 (/NAS) P41836 (/NAS)
Regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process GO:0006521
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acids.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Mitochondrion organization GO:0007005
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a mitochondrion; includes mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution, and replication of the mitochondrial genome as well as synthesis of new mitochondrial components.
4 A6QR12 (/ISS) O59824 (/ISS) O88967 (/ISS) Q925S8 (/ISS)
Cellular response to starvation GO:0009267
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of deprivation of nourishment.
4 M9PEE1 (/IEP) P91638 (/IEP) Q7KU82 (/IEP) Q9VS62 (/IEP)
PSII associated light-harvesting complex II catabolic process GO:0010304
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of one or more components of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II.
4 Q39102 (/TAS) Q8W585 (/TAS) Q9FGM0 (/TAS) Q9FH02 (/TAS)
Negative regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0010972
Any cell cycle regulatory process that decreases the rate or extent of progression of a cell from G2 to M phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Protein import into peroxisome matrix, receptor recycling GO:0016562
The process in which peroxisome targeting sequence receptors dissociates from cargo proteins and are returned to the cytosol.
4 A0A1D8PR43 (/ISO) O74941 (/ISO) Q4X1F5 (/ISO) Q6FRE6 (/ISO)
Anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process GO:0031145
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, with ubiquitin-protein ligation catalyzed by the anaphase-promoting complex, and mediated by the proteasome.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
SCF-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0031146
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, with ubiquitin-protein ligation catalyzed by an SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex, and mediated by the proteasome.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway GO:0033209
A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a tumor necrosis factor to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0038061
The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell through the NIK-dependent processing and activation of NF-KappaB. Begins with activation of the NF-KappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), which in turn phosphorylates and activates IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKalpha). IKKalpha phosphorylates the NF-Kappa B2 protein (p100) leading to p100 processing and release of an active NF-KappaB (p52).
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway GO:0038095
A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to an Fc-epsilon receptor on the surface of a signal-receiving cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The Fc portion of an immunoglobulin is its C-terminal constant region.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Regulation of mRNA stability GO:0043488
Any process that modulates the propensity of mRNA molecules to degradation. Includes processes that both stabilize and destabilize mRNAs.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Post-translational protein modification GO:0043687
The process of covalently altering one or more amino acids in a protein after the protein has been completely translated and released from the ribosome.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Positive regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition GO:0045842
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the cell cycle process in which a cell progresses from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, triggered by the activation of the anaphase promoting complex by Cdc20/Sleepy homolog which results in the degradation of Securin.
4 O14126 (/IC) O42931 (/IC) O74445 (/IC) P41836 (/IC)
Positive regulation of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly GO:0045899
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly.
4 P33297 (/IMP) P33299 (/IMP) P53549 (/IMP) Q01939 (/IMP)
T cell receptor signaling pathway GO:0050852
A series of molecular signals initiated by the cross-linking of an antigen receptor on a T cell.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle GO:0051436
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin ligase activity that contributes to the mitotic cell cycle.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in regulation of mitotic cell cycle transition GO:0051437
Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of ubiquitin ligase activity that contributes to the regulation of the mitotic cell cycle phase transition.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway GO:0060071
The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where activated receptors signal via downstream effectors including C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to modulate cytoskeletal elements and control cell polarity.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia GO:0061418
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of a hypoxia stimulus.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Proteasome regulatory particle assembly GO:0070682
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a mature, active proteasome regulatory particle complex.
4 P33297 (/IMP) P33299 (/IMP) P53549 (/IMP) Q01939 (/IMP)
Negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway GO:0090090
Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the Wnt signaling pathway through beta-catenin, the series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway GO:0090263
Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the Wnt signaling pathway through beta-catenin, the series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes.
4 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Misfolded or incompletely synthesized protein catabolic process GO:0006515
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded or attenuated proteins.
3 A6QR12 (/ISS) O88967 (/ISS) Q925S8 (/ISS)
Cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0006974
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.
3 O18413 (/IMP) Q7KMQ0 (/IMP) Q9VTQ9 (/IMP)
Cell proliferation GO:0008283
The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
3 A6QR12 (/ISS) O88967 (/ISS) Q925S8 (/ISS)
Protein import into peroxisome matrix GO:0016558
The import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. A peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) binds to a soluble receptor protein in the cytosol, and the resulting complex then binds to a receptor protein in the peroxisome membrane and is imported. The cargo protein is then released into the peroxisome matrix.
3 A0A1D8PR43 (/IMP) O43933 (/IMP) Q9FNP1 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway GO:0030433
The series of steps necessary to target endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein ubiquitination necessary for correct substrate transfer, transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
3 P25694 (/IMP) P53549 (/IMP) P55072 (/IMP)
Retrograde protein transport, ER to cytosol GO:0030970
The directed movement of unfolded or misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol through the translocon.
3 P25694 (/IMP) P55072 (/IMP) Q01853 (/IMP)
Negative regulation of chromatin silencing GO:0031936
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin silencing.
3 F4IAE9 (/IMP) F4IXH3 (/IMP) P40340 (/IMP)
Protein hexamerization GO:0034214
The formation of a protein hexamer, a macromolecular structure consisting of six noncovalently associated identical or nonidentical subunits.
3 P23787 (/IDA) P46462 (/IDA) Q01853 (/IDA)
Neutrophil degranulation GO:0043312
The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as proteases, lipases, and inflammatory mediators by a neutrophil.
3 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS)
Cellular protein complex assembly GO:0043623
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a protein complex, occurring at the level of an individual cell.
3 P39925 (/IMP) P40341 (/IMP) Q9N3T5 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of protein catabolic process GO:0045732
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
3 P33299 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA) Q9SCN8 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of inclusion body assembly GO:0090261
Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of inclusion body assembly. Inclusion body assembly is the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an inclusion body.
3 G3V6W6 (/IMP) P62198 (/IMP) Q32PW9 (/IMP)
Nucleotide-excision repair GO:0006289
A DNA repair process in which a small region of the strand surrounding the damage is removed from the DNA helix as an oligonucleotide. The small gap left in the DNA helix is filled in by the sequential action of DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. Nucleotide excision repair recognizes a wide range of substrates, including damage caused by UV irradiation (pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) and chemicals (intrastrand cross-links and bulky adducts).
2 P53549 (/IGI) Q01939 (/IGI)
Chromatin remodeling GO:0006338
Dynamic structural changes to eukaryotic chromatin occurring throughout the cell division cycle. These changes range from the local changes necessary for transcriptional regulation to global changes necessary for chromosome segregation.
2 O14114 (/NAS) Q9C0W2 (/NAS)
Regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0006357
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
2 O14114 (/ISO) P62196 (/ISO)
Signal peptide processing GO:0006465
The proteolytic removal of a signal peptide from a protein during or after transport to a specific location in the cell.
2 P39925 (/IMP) P40341 (/IMP)
Proteolysis GO:0006508
The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds.
2 P0AAI3 (/IDA) Q8I526 (/IDA)
Proteolysis GO:0006508
The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/ISO) Q9HGM3 (/ISO)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
2 Q01853 (/IGI) Q9P3A7 (/IGI)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
2 P46471 (/ISO) Q4Q0X8 (/ISO)
Misfolded or incompletely synthesized protein catabolic process GO:0006515
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded or attenuated proteins.
2 P32795 (/IMP) Q96TA2 (/IMP)
Misfolded or incompletely synthesized protein catabolic process GO:0006515
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded or attenuated proteins.
2 O59824 (/ISO) O88967 (/ISO)
Fatty acid metabolic process GO:0006631
The chemical reactions and pathways involving fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.
2 Q4X1F5 (/ISO) Q6FRE6 (/ISO)
Mitochondrial calcium ion transport GO:0006851
The directed movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) into, out of or within a mitochondrion.
2 Q96TA2 (/TAS) Q9Y4W6 (/TAS)
Mitochondrion organization GO:0007005
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a mitochondrion; includes mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution, and replication of the mitochondrial genome as well as synthesis of new mitochondrial components.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/IGI) Q920A7 (/IGI)
Peroxisome organization GO:0007031
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a peroxisome. A peroxisome is a small, membrane-bounded organelle that uses dioxygen (O2) to oxidize organic molecules.
2 O43933 (/IMP) Q9VUC7 (/IMP)
Axonogenesis GO:0007409
De novo generation of a long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. Refers to the morphogenesis or creation of shape or form of the developing axon.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP) Q9Y4W6 (/IMP)
Axonogenesis GO:0007409
De novo generation of a long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. Refers to the morphogenesis or creation of shape or form of the developing axon.
2 Q2KJI7 (/ISS) Q8JZQ2 (/ISS)
Mitochondrial fusion GO:0008053
Merging of two or more mitochondria within a cell to form a single compartment.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/IGI) Q920A7 (/IGI)
Embryo sac development GO:0009553
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo sac over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the megasporocyte to form four haploid megaspores. Three of the megaspores disintegrate, and the fourth undergoes mitosis giving rise to a binucleate syncytial embryo sac. The two haploid nuclei migrate to the opposite poles of the embryo sac and then undergo two rounds of mitosis generating four haploid nuclei at each pole. One nucleus from each set of four migrates to the center of the cell. Cellularization occurs, resulting in an eight-nucleate seven-celled structure. This structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center. The two polar nuclei fuse resulting in a mononucleate diploid endosperm mother cell. The three antipodal cells degenerate.
2 O04019 (/IGI) Q9SEI2 (/IGI)
Pollen development GO:0009555
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the microsporocyte to form four haploid microspores. The nucleus of each microspore then divides by mitosis to form a two-celled organism, the pollen grain, that contains a tube cell as well as a smaller generative cell. The pollen grain is surrounded by an elaborate cell wall. In some species, the generative cell immediately divides again to give a pair of sperm cells. In most flowering plants, however this division takes place later, in the tube that develops when a pollen grain germinates.
2 O04019 (/IGI) Q9SEI2 (/IGI)
Response to cytokinin GO:0009735
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cytokinin stimulus.
2 Q84WU8 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA)
Embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching GO:0009792
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo over time, from zygote formation until the end of the embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic life stage is organism-specific and may be somewhat arbitrary; for mammals it is usually considered to be birth, for insects the hatching of the first instar larva from the eggshell.
2 P54811 (/IGI) P54812 (/IGI)
Proteasomal protein catabolic process GO:0010498
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds that is mediated by the proteasome.
2 O04019 (/IGI) Q9SEI2 (/IGI)
Positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential GO:0010918
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of establishment or extent of a mitochondrial membrane potential, the electric potential existing across any mitochondrial membrane arising from charges in the membrane itself and from the charges present in the media on either side of the membrane.
2 P55072 (/IMP) Q01853 (/IMP)
Protein import into mitochondrial matrix GO:0030150
The import of proteins across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes into the matrix. Unfolded proteins enter the mitochondrial matrix with a chaperone protein; the information required to target the precursor protein from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is contained within its N-terminal matrix-targeting sequence. Translocation of precursors to the matrix occurs at the rare sites where the outer and inner membranes are close together.
2 P32795 (/IMP) P39925 (/IMP)
Protein catabolic process GO:0030163
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
2 P37476 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA)
Ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway GO:0030433
The series of steps necessary to target endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein ubiquitination necessary for correct substrate transfer, transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
2 Q01853 (/ISO) Q9P3A7 (/ISO)
Ovarian follicle cell development GO:0030707
The process that occurs during oogenesis involving the ovarian follicle cells, somatic cells which surround the germ cells of an ovary. An example of this is found in Drosophila melanogaster.
2 Q8SZ19 (/IMP) Q9W414 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0032436
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
2 P46462 (/IMP) Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of transcription elongation from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0032968
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription elongation, the extension of an RNA molecule after transcription initiation and promoter clearance by the addition of ribonucleotides, catalyzed by RNA polymerase II.
2 P53549 (/IMP) Q01939 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial protein processing GO:0034982
The peptide cleavage of mitochondrial proteins, including cleavage contributing to their import.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/IDA) Q920A7 (/IDA)
Mitochondrial protein processing GO:0034982
The peptide cleavage of mitochondrial proteins, including cleavage contributing to their import.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/IGI) Q920A7 (/IGI)
Mitochondrial calcium uptake GO:0036444
A process in which a calcium ion (Ca2+) is transported from one side of a membrane to the other into the mitochondrion by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
2 Q2KJI7 (/ISS) Q8JZQ2 (/ISS)
Ribosomal large subunit biogenesis GO:0042273
A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a large ribosomal subunit; includes transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2 P32794 (/IMP) Q07844 (/IMP)
Cristae formation GO:0042407
The assembly of cristae, the inwards folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2 Q8JZQ2 (/IGI) Q920A7 (/IGI)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
2 P62196 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO)
Positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0045944
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
2 O88685 (/ISO) Q9C0W2 (/ISO)
Lateral inhibition GO:0046331
Signaling between cells of equivalent developmental potential that results in these cells adopting different developmental fates. An example is the suppression by cells with a particular fate of the adoption of the same fate by surrounding cells.
2 Q8IQQ9 (/IMP) Q8T4G5 (/IMP)
Response to cadmium ion GO:0046686
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cadmium (Cd) ion stimulus.
2 P54609 (/IEP) Q9SCN8 (/IEP)
Mitotic spindle disassembly GO:0051228
The controlled breakdown of the spindle during a mitotic cell cycle.
2 P25694 (/IMP) Q9P3A7 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial calcium ion homeostasis GO:0051560
Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of calcium ions within the cytoplasm of a cell or between mitochondria and their surroundings.
2 Q2KJI7 (/ISS) Q8JZQ2 (/ISS)
Nonfunctional rRNA decay GO:0070651
An rRNA catabolic process that results in the targeted detection and degradation of aberrant rRNAs contained within translationally defective ribosomes, thereby acting as a quality-control system.
2 P25694 (/IMP) Q01939 (/IMP)
ER-associated misfolded protein catabolic process GO:0071712
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded proteins transported from the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted to cytoplasmic proteasomes for degradation.
2 P54811 (/IGI) P54812 (/IGI)
ER-associated misfolded protein catabolic process GO:0071712
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded proteins transported from the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted to cytoplasmic proteasomes for degradation.
2 P25694 (/IMP) P55072 (/IMP)
DNA demethylation GO:0080111
The removal of a methyl group from one or more nucleotides within an DNA molecule.
2 F4IAE9 (/IMP) F4IXH3 (/IMP)
Autophagosome maturation GO:0097352
The process in which autophagosomes, double-membraned vacuoles containing cytoplasmic material fuse with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bounded structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole. Fusion provides an acidic environment and digestive function to the interior of the autophagosome.
2 P55072 (/IMP) Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of transcription of nuclear large rRNA transcript from RNA polymerase I promoter GO:1901838
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription of nuclear large rRNA transcript from RNA polymerase I promoter.
2 Q8SZ19 (/IMP) Q9W414 (/IMP)
Ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus GO:0000055
The directed movement of a ribosomal large subunit from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
1 Q07844 (/IMP)
Ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus GO:0000055
The directed movement of a ribosomal large subunit from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
1 O14325 (/ISO)
Ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus GO:0000055
The directed movement of a ribosomal large subunit from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
1 Q54SY2 (/ISS)
Negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0000122
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
1 P40340 (/IMP)
Microtubule cytoskeleton organization GO:0000226
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising microtubules and their associated proteins.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Replicative cell aging GO:0001302
The process associated with progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan that occurs as the cell continues cycles of growth and division.
1 P39925 (/IMP)
Osteoblast differentiation GO:0001649
The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an osteoblast, a mesodermal or neural crest cell that gives rise to bone.
1 P35998 (/IDA)
Osteoblast differentiation GO:0001649
The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an osteoblast, a mesodermal or neural crest cell that gives rise to bone.
1 P46471 (/ISO)
Blastocyst development GO:0001824
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the blastocyst over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mammalian blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells containing two cell types, the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm.
1 O88685 (/IMP)
Cytoplasmic translation GO:0002181
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a protein in the cytoplasm. This is a ribosome-mediated process in which the information in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to specify the sequence of amino acids in the protein.
1 P39925 (/IMP)
DNA repair GO:0006281
The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e.g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.
1 P55072 (/NAS)
Double-strand break repair GO:0006302
The repair of double-strand breaks in DNA via homologous and nonhomologous mechanisms to reform a continuous DNA helix.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Double-strand break repair GO:0006302
The repair of double-strand breaks in DNA via homologous and nonhomologous mechanisms to reform a continuous DNA helix.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Chromatin remodeling GO:0006338
Dynamic structural changes to eukaryotic chromatin occurring throughout the cell division cycle. These changes range from the local changes necessary for transcriptional regulation to global changes necessary for chromosome segregation.
1 Q01939 (/IMP)
Regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0006357
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
1 P62195 (/IDA)
Regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0006357
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
1 Q6PL18 (/TAS)
Protein folding GO:0006457
The process of assisting in the covalent and noncovalent assembly of single chain polypeptides or multisubunit complexes into the correct tertiary structure.
1 P32795 (/IMP)
Protein folding GO:0006457
The process of assisting in the covalent and noncovalent assembly of single chain polypeptides or multisubunit complexes into the correct tertiary structure.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Protein complex assembly GO:0006461
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a protein complex.
1 Q54PX1 (/ISS)
Signal peptide processing GO:0006465
The proteolytic removal of a signal peptide from a protein during or after transport to a specific location in the cell.
1 Q9HGM3 (/ISO)
Protein methylation GO:0006479
The addition of a methyl group to a protein amino acid. A methyl group is derived from methane by the removal of a hydrogen atom.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
1 P62333 (/IC)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
1 P35998 (/IDA)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0006511
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the protein.
1 P33299 (/IPI)
Protein targeting to peroxisome GO:0006625
The process of directing proteins towards the peroxisome, usually using signals contained within the protein.
1 O43933 (/IMP)
Protein targeting to peroxisome GO:0006625
The process of directing proteins towards the peroxisome, usually using signals contained within the protein.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Fatty acid metabolic process GO:0006631
The chemical reactions and pathways involving fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.
1 C8V3A3 (/IMP)
Fatty acid beta-oxidation GO:0006635
A fatty acid oxidation process that results in the complete oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid. Fatty acid beta-oxidation begins with the addition of coenzyme A to a fatty acid, and occurs by successive cycles of reactions during each of which the fatty acid is shortened by a two-carbon fragment removed as acetyl coenzyme A; the cycle continues until only two or three carbons remain (as acetyl-CoA or propionyl-CoA respectively).
1 Q9FNP1 (/IMP)
NADH metabolic process GO:0006734
The chemical reactions and pathways involving reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
NADH metabolic process GO:0006734
The chemical reactions and pathways involving reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport GO:0006888
The directed movement of substances from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, mediated by COP II vesicles. Small COP II coated vesicles form from the ER and then fuse directly with the cis-Golgi. Larger structures are transported along microtubules to the cis-Golgi.
1 P46462 (/IMP)
Autophagy GO:0006914
The process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm; allows for both recycling of macromolecular constituents under conditions of cellular stress and remodeling the intracellular structure for cell differentiation.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Autophagy GO:0006914
The process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm; allows for both recycling of macromolecular constituents under conditions of cellular stress and remodeling the intracellular structure for cell differentiation.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919
Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme cysteine-type endopeptidase in the context of an apoptotic process.
1 Q01853 (/IDA)
Activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919
Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme cysteine-type endopeptidase in the context of an apoptotic process.
1 P55072 (/ISS)
Cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0006974
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0006974
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Response to oxidative stress GO:0006979
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
1 P9WQN3 (/IDA)
Mitochondrion organization GO:0007005
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a mitochondrion; includes mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution, and replication of the mitochondrial genome as well as synthesis of new mitochondrial components.
1 Q96TA2 (/IMP)
Mitochondrion organization GO:0007005
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a mitochondrion; includes mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution, and replication of the mitochondrial genome as well as synthesis of new mitochondrial components.
1 O88967 (/ISO)
Endoplasmic reticulum organization GO:0007029
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the endoplasmic reticulum.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Golgi organization GO:0007030
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Peroxisome organization GO:0007031
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a peroxisome. A peroxisome is a small, membrane-bounded organelle that uses dioxygen (O2) to oxidize organic molecules.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Peroxisome organization GO:0007031
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a peroxisome. A peroxisome is a small, membrane-bounded organelle that uses dioxygen (O2) to oxidize organic molecules.
1 Q9VUC7 (/ISS)
Lysosome organization GO:0007040
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a lysosome. A lysosome is a cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded organelle that is found in most animal cells and that contains a variety of hydrolases.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Pole cell formation GO:0007279
Formation of a small group of cells (pole cells) at the posterior pole of the insect blastula. They are the first cells to cellularize after the arrival of nuclei at the end of the syncytial blastula stage and are the precursors to the insect germ cells.
1 Q7KN62 (/IGI)
Regulation of pole plasm oskar mRNA localization GO:0007317
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the process in which oskar mRNA is transported to, or maintained in, the oocyte pole plasm.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Axonogenesis GO:0007409
De novo generation of a long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. Refers to the morphogenesis or creation of shape or form of the developing axon.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/ISO)
Central nervous system development GO:0007417
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the central nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.
1 Q9VUC7 (/IMP)
Peripheral nervous system development GO:0007422
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the peripheral nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The peripheral nervous system is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. Nerves in the PNS connect the central nervous system (CNS) with sensory organs, other organs, muscles, blood vessels and glands.
1 Q9VUC7 (/IMP)
Neuromuscular junction development GO:0007528
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a neuromuscular junction.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP)
Locomotory behavior GO:0007626
The specific movement from place to place of an organism in response to external or internal stimuli. Locomotion of a whole organism in a manner dependent upon some combination of that organism's internal state and external conditions.
1 Q7ZU99 (/IMP)
Cell proliferation GO:0008283
The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
1 Q96TA2 (/IMP)
Cell proliferation GO:0008283
The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
1 O88967 (/ISO)
Response to heat GO:0009408
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a heat stimulus, a temperature stimulus above the optimal temperature for that organism.
1 Q9FGM0 (/IMP)
Response to bacterium GO:0009617
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a bacterium.
1 P90532 (/IEP)
Chloroplast organization GO:0009658
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the chloroplast.
1 O22993 (/IMP)
Embryo development ending in seed dormancy GO:0009793
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. An example of this process is found in Arabidopsis thaliana.
1 O22993 (/IMP)
Pollen germination GO:0009846
The physiological and developmental changes that occur in a heterosporous plant pollen grain, beginning with hydration and terminating with the emergence of the pollen tube through the aperture.
1 P54609 (/IMP)
Pollen tube growth GO:0009860
Growth of pollen via tip extension of the intine wall.
1 P54609 (/IMP)
Chloroplast fission GO:0010020
The division of a chloroplast within a cell to form two or more separate chloroplast compartments. This division occurs independently of mitosis.
1 O22993 (/IMP)
Meristem maintenance GO:0010073
Any process involved in maintaining the identity, size and shape of a meristem.
1 O80983 (/IMP)
Photoinhibition GO:0010205
The mechanism by which high light intensity inhibits photosynthesis through inactivation of the D1 protein of photosystem II.
1 Q9FH02 (/IMP)
Photosystem II repair GO:0010206
Proteolysis of the damaged D1 protein and re-assembly of a new D1 subunit in the photosystem II following photoinhibition.
1 Q39102 (/TAS)
Glucose mediated signaling pathway GO:0010255
The process in which a change in the level of mono- and disaccharide glucose trigger the expression of genes controlling metabolic and developmental processes.
1 O04019 (/IMP)
PSII associated light-harvesting complex II catabolic process GO:0010304
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of one or more components of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II.
1 F4K9Q6 (/IEP)
Regulation of gene expression GO:0010468
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
1 P9WQN3 (/IDA)
Regulation of gene expression GO:0010468
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
1 Q9N3T5 (/IGI)
Proteasomal protein catabolic process GO:0010498
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds that is mediated by the proteasome.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Proteasomal protein catabolic process GO:0010498
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds that is mediated by the proteasome.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Regulation of cell cycle process GO:0010564
Any process that modulates a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.
1 P46468 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628
Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
1 Q9N3T5 (/IGI)
Negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629
Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
1 Q9N3T5 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential GO:0010918
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of establishment or extent of a mitochondrial membrane potential, the electric potential existing across any mitochondrial membrane arising from charges in the membrane itself and from the charges present in the media on either side of the membrane.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Macroautophagy GO:0016236
The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure. Autophagosomes then fuse with a lysosome (or vacuole) releasing single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies that are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion GO:0016320
The joining of 2 or more lipid bilayer membranes that surround the endoplasmic reticulum.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion GO:0016320
The joining of 2 or more lipid bilayer membranes that surround the endoplasmic reticulum.
1 Q7KN62 (/ISS)
Protein processing GO:0016485
Any protein maturation process achieved by the cleavage of a peptide bond or bonds within a protein. Protein maturation is the process leading to the attainment of the full functional capacity of a protein.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IMP)
Protein import into peroxisome matrix GO:0016558
The import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. A peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) binds to a soluble receptor protein in the cytosol, and the resulting complex then binds to a receptor protein in the peroxisome membrane and is imported. The cargo protein is then released into the peroxisome matrix.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Protein import into peroxisome matrix, receptor recycling GO:0016562
The process in which peroxisome targeting sequence receptors dissociates from cargo proteins and are returned to the cytosol.
1 P24004 (/IDA)
Protein import into peroxisome matrix, receptor recycling GO:0016562
The process in which peroxisome targeting sequence receptors dissociates from cargo proteins and are returned to the cytosol.
1 P24004 (/IGI)
Protein import into peroxisome matrix, receptor recycling GO:0016562
The process in which peroxisome targeting sequence receptors dissociates from cargo proteins and are returned to the cytosol.
1 P24004 (/IMP)
Protein ubiquitination GO:0016567
The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Protein ubiquitination GO:0016567
The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Protein ubiquitination GO:0016567
The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
1 P55072 (/NAS)
Protein ubiquitination GO:0016567
The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Nucleosome positioning GO:0016584
Ordering of successions of nucleosomes into regular arrays so that nucleosomes are positioned at defined distances from one another.
1 O14114 (/IDA)
Protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine GO:0018279
The glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine forming N4-glycosyl-L-asparagine; the most common form is N-acetylglucosaminyl asparagine; N-acetylgalactosaminyl asparagine and N4 glucosyl asparagine also occur. This modification typically occurs in extracellular peptides with an N-X-(ST) motif. Partial modification has been observed to occur with cysteine, rather than serine or threonine, in the third position; secondary structure features are important, and proline in the second or fourth positions inhibits modification.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine GO:0018279
The glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine forming N4-glycosyl-L-asparagine; the most common form is N-acetylglucosaminyl asparagine; N-acetylgalactosaminyl asparagine and N4 glucosyl asparagine also occur. This modification typically occurs in extracellular peptides with an N-X-(ST) motif. Partial modification has been observed to occur with cysteine, rather than serine or threonine, in the third position; secondary structure features are important, and proline in the second or fourth positions inhibits modification.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Viral genome replication GO:0019079
Any process involved directly in viral genome replication, including viral nucleotide metabolism.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Viral genome replication GO:0019079
Any process involved directly in viral genome replication, including viral nucleotide metabolism.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Asexual reproduction GO:0019954
The biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process.
1 P90532 (/IMP)
Translesion synthesis GO:0019985
The replication of damaged DNA by synthesis across a lesion in the template strand; a specialized DNA polymerase or replication complex inserts a defined nucleotide across from the lesion which allows DNA synthesis to continue beyond the lesion. This process can be mutagenic depending on the damaged nucleotide and the inserted nucleotide.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Translesion synthesis GO:0019985
The replication of damaged DNA by synthesis across a lesion in the template strand; a specialized DNA polymerase or replication complex inserts a defined nucleotide across from the lesion which allows DNA synthesis to continue beyond the lesion. This process can be mutagenic depending on the damaged nucleotide and the inserted nucleotide.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Nerve development GO:0021675
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a nerve over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP)
Glial cell development GO:0021782
The process aimed at the progression of a glial cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.
1 Q9VUC7 (/IMP)
Protein catabolic process GO:0030163
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
1 P9WQN3 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway GO:0030433
The series of steps necessary to target endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein ubiquitination necessary for correct substrate transfer, transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
1 P46468 (/EXP)
Ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway GO:0030433
The series of steps necessary to target endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein ubiquitination necessary for correct substrate transfer, transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway GO:0030433
The series of steps necessary to target endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. Begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein ubiquitination necessary for correct substrate transfer, transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Hyphal growth GO:0030448
Growth of fungi as threadlike, tubular structures that may contain multiple nuclei and may or may not be divided internally by septa, or cross-walls.
1 A0A1D8PND0 (/IMP)
Endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response GO:0030968
The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the presence of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or other ER-related stress; results in changes in the regulation of transcription and translation.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Retrograde protein transport, ER to cytosol GO:0030970
The directed movement of unfolded or misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol through the translocon.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Retrograde protein transport, ER to cytosol GO:0030970
The directed movement of unfolded or misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol through the translocon.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Retrograde protein transport, ER to cytosol GO:0030970
The directed movement of unfolded or misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol through the translocon.
1 Q01853 (/ISS)
Sister chromatid biorientation GO:0031134
The cell cycle process in which sister chromatids establish stable attachments to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of protein complex assembly GO:0031334
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex assembly.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of protein complex assembly GO:0031334
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex assembly.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of defense response GO:0031348
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a defense response.
1 P54609 (/IMP)
Regulation of heterochromatin assembly GO:0031445
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, extent or location of heterochromatin formation.
1 P54816 (/IMP)
Regulation of protein stability GO:0031647
Any process that affects the structure and integrity of a protein, altering the likelihood of its degradation or aggregation.
1 O17071 (/IMP)
Protein destabilization GO:0031648
Any process that decreases the stability of a protein, making it more vulnerable to degradative processes or aggregation.
1 P54609 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0032436
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0032436
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Protein hexamerization GO:0034214
The formation of a protein hexamer, a macromolecular structure consisting of six noncovalently associated identical or nonidentical subunits.
1 Q01853 (/IMP)
Protein hexamerization GO:0034214
The formation of a protein hexamer, a macromolecular structure consisting of six noncovalently associated identical or nonidentical subunits.
1 Q6GL04 (/ISS)
Mitochondrial unfolded protein response GO:0034514
The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the presence of unfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix; results in transcriptional upregulation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial stress proteins.
1 Q9N3T5 (/IMP)
Ribophagy GO:0034517
The process in which cells degrade mature ribosomes under conditions of starvation.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Cellular response to oxidative stress GO:0034599
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
1 A0A1D8PR43 (/IMP)
Piecemeal microautophagy of nucleus GO:0034727
Degradation of a cell nucleus by lysosomal microautophagy.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage GO:0035103
The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus to upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IC)
Sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage GO:0035103
The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus to upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial protein catabolic process GO:0035694
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a mitochondrial protein. This process is necessary to maintain the healthy state of mitochondria and is thought to occur via the induction of an intramitochondrial lysosome-like organelle that acts to eliminate the damaged oxidised mitochondrial proteins without destroying the mitochondrial structure.
1 Q96TA2 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial protein catabolic process GO:0035694
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a mitochondrial protein. This process is necessary to maintain the healthy state of mitochondria and is thought to occur via the induction of an intramitochondrial lysosome-like organelle that acts to eliminate the damaged oxidised mitochondrial proteins without destroying the mitochondrial structure.
1 O88967 (/ISO)
Mitochondrial calcium uptake GO:0036444
A process in which a calcium ion (Ca2+) is transported from one side of a membrane to the other into the mitochondrion by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
1 Q9Y4W6 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial calcium uptake GO:0036444
A process in which a calcium ion (Ca2+) is transported from one side of a membrane to the other into the mitochondrion by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/ISO)
ERAD pathway GO:0036503
The protein catabolic pathway which targets endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. It begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein modifications necessary for correct substrate transfer (e.g. ubiquitination), transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
ERAD pathway GO:0036503
The protein catabolic pathway which targets endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. It begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein modifications necessary for correct substrate transfer (e.g. ubiquitination), transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
ERAD pathway GO:0036503
The protein catabolic pathway which targets endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins for degradation by the cytoplasmic proteasome. It begins with recognition of the ER-resident protein, includes retrotranslocation (dislocation) of the protein from the ER to the cytosol, protein modifications necessary for correct substrate transfer (e.g. ubiquitination), transport of the protein to the proteasome, and ends with degradation of the protein by the cytoplasmic proteasome.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Growth GO:0040007
The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell.
1 P9WQN3 (/IMP)
Regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of growth of the body of an organism so that it reaches its usual body size.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP)
Ribosomal large subunit biogenesis GO:0042273
A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a large ribosomal subunit; includes transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
1 Q07844 (/IGI)
Ribosomal large subunit biogenesis GO:0042273
A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a large ribosomal subunit; includes transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
1 O60058 (/ISO)
Response to drug GO:0042493
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a drug stimulus. A drug is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease.
1 P32794 (/IMP)
Myelination GO:0042552
The process in which myelin sheaths are formed and maintained around neurons. Oligodendrocytes in the brain and spinal cord and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system wrap axons with compact layers of their plasma membrane. Adjacent myelin segments are separated by a non-myelinated stretch of axon called a node of Ranvier.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP)
Regulation of apoptotic process GO:0042981
Any process that modulates the occurrence or rate of cell death by apoptotic process.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Chordate embryonic development GO:0043009
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation through a stage including a notochord and neural tube until birth or egg hatching.
1 Q7ZU99 (/IMP)
Negative regulation of programmed cell death GO:0043069
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death, cell death resulting from activation of endogenous cellular processes.
1 P62195 (/NAS)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
1 P62195 (/IDA)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
1 Q01939 (/IPI)
Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0043161
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
1 P55072 (/NAS)
Negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity GO:0043433
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of a transcription factor, any factor involved in the initiation or regulation of transcription.
1 Q01939 (/IMP)
Regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0043523
Any process that modulates the occurrence or rate of cell death by apoptotic process in neurons.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0043525
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death of neurons by apoptotic process.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Plastid fission GO:0043572
The creation of two or more plastids by division of one plastid. A plastid is any member of a family of organelles found in the cytoplasm of plants and some protists, which are membrane-bounded and contain DNA.
1 O22993 (/IMP)
Modulation by host of viral transcription GO:0043921
Any process in which a host organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of viral transcription.
1 P17980 (/IDA)
Modulation by host of viral transcription GO:0043921
Any process in which a host organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of viral transcription.
1 O88685 (/ISO)
Sporulation GO:0043934
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a spore over time, from its initiation to the mature structure. A spore is a structure that can be used for dissemination, for survival of adverse conditions because of its heat and dessication resistance, and/or for reproduction.
1 P37476 (/IMP)
Single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate GO:0044011
A process in which microorganisms of the same species attach to and grow on an inanimate surface such as a rock or pipe, and produce extracellular polymers that facilitate attachment and matrix formation, resulting in an alteration in the phenotype of the organisms with respect to growth rate and gene transcription.
1 A0A1D8PND0 (/IMP)
Protein import into mitochondrial intermembrane space GO:0045041
The import of proteins into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.
1 P32795 (/IDA)
Protein import into mitochondrial intermembrane space GO:0045041
The import of proteins into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.
1 P32795 (/IMP)
Protein import into mitochondrial intermembrane space GO:0045041
The import of proteins into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.
1 P40341 (/TAS)
Establishment of protein localization GO:0045184
The directed movement of a protein to a specific location.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Positive regulation of protein catabolic process GO:0045732
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045892
Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
1 P62196 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
1 Q6PL18 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
1 Q8CDM1 (/ISO)
Positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
1 P62195 (/NAS)
Positive regulation of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly GO:0045899
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly.
1 Q01939 (/IGI)
Positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0045944
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
1 P17980 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0045944
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
1 P40340 (/IMP)
ATP metabolic process GO:0046034
The chemical reactions and pathways involving ATP, adenosine triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
1 Q01853 (/IDA)
ATP metabolic process GO:0046034
The chemical reactions and pathways involving ATP, adenosine triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of viral entry into host cell GO:0046598
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the introduction of viral entry into the host cell.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Muscle cell cellular homeostasis GO:0046716
The cellular homeostatic process that preserves a muscle cell in a stable functional or structural state.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Spermatocyte division GO:0048137
The meiotic divisions undergone by the primary and secondary spermatocytes to produce haploid spermatids.
1 Q9VUC7 (/IMP)
Photosystem I assembly GO:0048564
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a photosystem I complex on the thylakoid membrane.
1 Q9FH02 (/IMP)
Muscle fiber development GO:0048747
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In skeletal muscle, fibers are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP)
Dendrite morphogenesis GO:0048813
The process in which the anatomical structures of a dendrite are generated and organized. A dendrite is a freely branching protoplasmic process of a nerve cell.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Modulation of synaptic transmission GO:0050804
Any process that modulates the frequency or amplitude of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. Amplitude, in this case, refers to the change in postsynaptic membrane potential due to a single instance of synaptic transmission.
1 P62198 (/IMP)
Defense response to Gram-negative bacterium GO:0050829
Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a Gram-negative bacterium that act to protect the cell or organism.
1 Q9N3T5 (/IGI)
Defense response to Gram-negative bacterium GO:0050829
Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a Gram-negative bacterium that act to protect the cell or organism.
1 Q9N3T5 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of activity of a transcription factor, any factor involved in the initiation or regulation of transcription.
1 Q01939 (/IMP)
Protein homooligomerization GO:0051260
The process of creating protein oligomers, compounds composed of a small number, usually between three and ten, of identical component monomers. Oligomers may be formed by the polymerization of a number of monomers or the depolymerization of a large protein polymer.
1 P46462 (/IDA)
Cell division GO:0051301
The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells.
1 P54609 (/IMP)
Mitotic sister chromatid separation GO:0051306
The process in which sister chromatids are physically detached from each other during mitosis.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial calcium ion homeostasis GO:0051560
Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of calcium ions within the cytoplasm of a cell or between mitochondria and their surroundings.
1 Q9Y4W6 (/IMP)
Mitochondrial calcium ion homeostasis GO:0051560
Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of calcium ions within the cytoplasm of a cell or between mitochondria and their surroundings.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/ISO)
Protein maturation GO:0051604
Any process leading to the attainment of the full functional capacity of a protein.
1 P32795 (/IMP)
Negative regulation of telomerase activity GO:0051974
Any process that stops or reduces the activity of the enzyme telomerase, which catalyzes of the reaction: deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1).
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Righting reflex GO:0060013
A reflex process in which an animal immediately tries to turn over after being placed in a supine position.
1 Q8JZQ2 (/IMP)
Microtubule-based peroxisome localization GO:0060152
The microtubule-based process in which a peroxisome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location. A peroxisome is a small membrane-bounded organelle that uses dioxygen (O2) to oxidize organic molecules.
1 O43933 (/IMP)
Microtubule-based peroxisome localization GO:0060152
The microtubule-based process in which a peroxisome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location. A peroxisome is a small membrane-bounded organelle that uses dioxygen (O2) to oxidize organic molecules.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Establishment of endoplasmic reticulum localization involved in endoplasmic reticulum polarization at cell division site GO:0061166
The directed movement of the endoplasmic reticulum to the site where a cell will divide.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IMP)
Aggresome assembly GO:0070842
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an aggresome; requires the microtubule cytoskeleton and dynein.
1 Q01853 (/IGI)
Error-free translesion synthesis GO:0070987
The conversion of DNA-damage induced single-stranded gaps into large molecular weight DNA after replication by using a specialized DNA polymerase or replication complex to insert a defined nucleotide across the lesion. This process does not remove the replication-blocking lesions but does not causes an increase in the endogenous mutation level. For S. cerevisiae, RAD30 encodes DNA polymerase eta, which incorporates two adenines. When incorporated across a thymine-thymine dimer, it does not increase the endogenous mutation level.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Cellular response to antibiotic GO:0071236
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms.
1 Q9HV48 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin-dependent catabolism of misfolded proteins by cytoplasm-associated proteasome GO:0071629
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded proteins in the cytoplasm, which are targeted to cytoplasmic proteasomes for degradation.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Ubiquitin-dependent catabolism of misfolded proteins by nucleus-associated proteasome GO:0071630
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded proteins via a mechanism in which the proteins are transported to the nucleus for ubiquitination, and then targeted to proteasomes for degradation.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
ER-associated misfolded protein catabolic process GO:0071712
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded proteins transported from the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted to cytoplasmic proteasomes for degradation.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide catabolic process GO:0072389
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of flavin adenine dinucleotide, which acts as a coenzyme or prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide catabolic process GO:0072389
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of flavin adenine dinucleotide, which acts as a coenzyme or prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Mitochondria-associated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:0072671
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of proteins transported from mitochondria and targeted to cytoplasmic proteasomes for degradation as a response to oxidative stress conditions.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Autophagosome maturation GO:0097352
The process in which autophagosomes, double-membraned vacuoles containing cytoplasmic material fuse with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bounded structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole. Fusion provides an acidic environment and digestive function to the interior of the autophagosome.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Cellular response to virus GO:0098586
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a virus.
1 Q7KN62 (/IMP)
Regulation of protein catabolic process at postsynapse, modulating synaptic transmission GO:0099576
Any process that modulates synaptic transmission by regulating a catabolic process occurring at a postsynapse.
1 P62198 (/IC)
Positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus GO:1900182
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of protein K63-linked deubiquitination GO:1903006
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein K63-linked deubiquitination.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of protein K63-linked deubiquitination GO:1903006
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein K63-linked deubiquitination.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Positive regulation of Lys63-specific deubiquitinase activity GO:1903007
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of Lys63-specific deubiquitinase activity.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Positive regulation of Lys63-specific deubiquitinase activity GO:1903007
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of Lys63-specific deubiquitinase activity.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Regulation of aerobic respiration GO:1903715
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of aerobic respiration.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Regulation of aerobic respiration GO:1903715
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of aerobic respiration.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Positive regulation of oxidative phosphorylation GO:1903862
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of oxidative phosphorylation.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of oxidative phosphorylation GO:1903862
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of oxidative phosphorylation.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Ribosome-associated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:1990116
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide encoded by an aberrant message and associated with a stalled ribosome. Degradation is initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the ribosome-associated protein.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Ribosome-associated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:1990116
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide encoded by an aberrant message and associated with a stalled ribosome. Degradation is initiated by the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin group, or multiple ubiquitin groups, to the ribosome-associated protein.
1 Q9P3A7 (/ISO)
SCF complex disassembly in response to cadmium stress GO:1990171
The disaggregation of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex in response to cadmium stress.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Regulation of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process GO:2000058
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process.
1 Q7ZU99 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of invasive growth in response to glucose limitation GO:2000219
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of invasive growth in response to glucose limitation.
1 P40340 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of histone H2B ubiquitination GO:2001168
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of histone H2B ubiquitination.
1 P25694 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of ATP biosynthetic process GO:2001171
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ATP biosynthetic process.
1 P55072 (/IMP)
Positive regulation of ATP biosynthetic process GO:2001171
Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ATP biosynthetic process.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)

There are 148 GO terms relating to "cellular component"

The search results have been sorted with the annotations that are found most frequently at the top of the list. The results can be filtered by typing text into the search box at the top of the table.
GO Term Annotations Evidence
Nucleus GO:0005634
A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
29 O14114 (/IDA) O14325 (/IDA) O18413 (/IDA) O42931 (/IDA) O74445 (/IDA) P17980 (/IDA) P23787 (/IDA) P25694 (/IDA) P35998 (/IDA) P40340 (/IDA)
(19 more)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
23 O14126 (/IDA) O42931 (/IDA) O43933 (/IDA) O60058 (/IDA) O74445 (/IDA) O74941 (/IDA) P25694 (/IDA) P35998 (/IDA) P40340 (/IDA) P41836 (/IDA)
(13 more)
Proteasome accessory complex GO:0022624
A protein complex, that caps one or both ends of the proteasome core complex and regulates entry into, or exit from, the proteasome core complex.
18 O42586 (/ISS) O42587 (/ISS) P17980 (/ISS) P35998 (/ISS) P46470 (/ISS) P46472 (/ISS) P62194 (/ISS) P62195 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS)
(8 more)
Mitochondrion GO:0005739
A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
17 A0A0B4KFY4 (/IDA) F1LN92 (/IDA) F3YDF1 (/IDA) O59824 (/IDA) O80983 (/IDA) O88967 (/IDA) Q84WU8 (/IDA) Q8I526 (/IDA) Q8JZQ2 (/IDA) Q8VZI8 (/IDA)
(7 more)
Proteasome complex GO:0000502
A large multisubunit complex which catalyzes protein degradation, found in eukaryotes, archaea and some bacteria. In eukaryotes, this complex consists of the barrel shaped proteasome core complex and one or two associated proteins or complexes that act in regulating entry into or exit from the core.
16 P46472 (/ISS) P62194 (/ISS) P62196 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS) Q18787 (/ISS) Q4R4R0 (/ISS) Q4RG45 (/ISS) Q5E9F9 (/ISS) Q5R8D7 (/ISS)
(6 more)
Cytoplasm GO:0005737
All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
16 O18413 (/IDA) O43933 (/IDA) O44008 (/IDA) O74941 (/IDA) P23787 (/IDA) P54609 (/IDA) P54811 (/IDA) P62195 (/IDA) P90532 (/IDA) Q38B27 (/IDA)
(6 more)
Proteasome complex GO:0000502
A large multisubunit complex which catalyzes protein degradation, found in eukaryotes, archaea and some bacteria. In eukaryotes, this complex consists of the barrel shaped proteasome core complex and one or two associated proteins or complexes that act in regulating entry into or exit from the core.
13 O04019 (/IDA) P17980 (/IDA) P35998 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA) P62195 (/IDA) P62198 (/IDA) P62333 (/IDA) Q94BQ2 (/IDA) Q9C5U3 (/IDA) Q9MAK9 (/IDA)
(3 more)
Membrane GO:0016020
A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
13 F4HTC3 (/IDA) O04019 (/IDA) O44008 (/IDA) O80983 (/IDA) P17980 (/IDA) P35998 (/IDA) P62195 (/IDA) P62333 (/IDA) Q38B27 (/IDA) Q39102 (/IDA)
(3 more)
Proteasome regulatory particle GO:0005838
A multisubunit complex, which caps one or both ends of the proteasome core complex. This complex recognizes and unfolds ubiquitinated proteins, and translocates them to the proteasome core complex.
11 O18413 (/IDA) P62196 (/IDA) Q38A02 (/IDA) Q38BP7 (/IDA) Q7KMQ0 (/IDA) Q8SZ19 (/IDA) Q9NC95 (/IDA) Q9NC97 (/IDA) Q9V3V6 (/IDA) Q9W414 (/IDA)
(1 more)
Cytoplasm GO:0005737
All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
10 P62194 (/ISS) P62196 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS) Q4RG45 (/ISS) Q54PX1 (/ISS) Q6AZC1 (/ISS) Q6AZU7 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q6P380 (/ISS)
Plasma membrane GO:0005886
The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
10 O04019 (/IDA) P54609 (/IDA) P9WQN3 (/IDA) Q59WG3 (/IDA) Q5AJC2 (/IDA) Q7KN62 (/IDA) Q9C5U3 (/IDA) Q9MAK9 (/IDA) Q9SCN8 (/IDA) Q9SSB5 (/IDA)
Proteasome regulatory particle, base subcomplex GO:0008540
The subcomplex of the proteasome regulatory particle that directly associates with the proteasome core complex.
10 O18413 (/IDA) P33297 (/IDA) P33299 (/IDA) P53549 (/IDA) Q01939 (/IDA) Q7KMQ0 (/IDA) Q8SZ19 (/IDA) Q9V3V6 (/IDA) Q9W414 (/IDA) Q9XZC3 (/IDA)
Chloroplast GO:0009507
A chlorophyll-containing plastid with thylakoids organized into grana and frets, or stroma thylakoids, and embedded in a stroma.
10 F4J3N2 (/IDA) F4K9Q6 (/IDA) O22993 (/IDA) Q39102 (/IDA) Q8W585 (/IDA) Q9FGM0 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA) Q9FIM2 (/IDA) Q9LET7 (/IDA) Q9SD67 (/IDA)
Nucleus GO:0005634
A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
9 P62194 (/ISS) P62196 (/ISS) P62197 (/ISS) P62198 (/ISS) Q4RG45 (/ISS) Q6AZC1 (/ISS) Q6AZU7 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q6P380 (/ISS)
Proteasome regulatory particle GO:0005838
A multisubunit complex, which caps one or both ends of the proteasome core complex. This complex recognizes and unfolds ubiquitinated proteins, and translocates them to the proteasome core complex.
9 O18413 (/ISS) P34124 (/ISS) Q7KMQ0 (/ISS) Q8IEK3 (/ISS) Q8IEQ1 (/ISS) Q8SZ19 (/ISS) Q9V3V6 (/ISS) Q9W414 (/ISS) Q9XZC3 (/ISS)
Proteasome regulatory particle, base subcomplex GO:0008540
The subcomplex of the proteasome regulatory particle that directly associates with the proteasome core complex.
9 O17071 (/ISS) O18413 (/ISS) Q7KMQ0 (/ISS) Q8SZ19 (/ISS) Q9V3V6 (/ISS) Q9VA54 (/ISS) Q9VTQ9 (/ISS) Q9W414 (/ISS) Q9XZC3 (/ISS)
Chloroplast envelope GO:0009941
The double lipid bilayer enclosing the chloroplast and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
9 F4J3N2 (/IDA) O22993 (/IDA) Q39102 (/IDA) Q8W585 (/IDA) Q9FGM0 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA) Q9FIM2 (/IDA) Q9M895 (/IDA) Q9SD67 (/IDA)
P-body GO:0000932
A focus in the cytoplasm where mRNAs may become inactivated by decapping or some other mechanism. Protein and RNA localized to these foci are involved in mRNA degradation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), translational repression, and RNA-mediated gene silencing.
7 P17980 (/ISS) P35998 (/ISS) Q4R4R0 (/ISS) Q5E9F9 (/ISS) Q5R8D7 (/ISS) Q63347 (/ISS) Q63569 (/ISS)
Nucleus GO:0005634
A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
7 E9Q166 (/ISO) O14325 (/ISO) O88685 (/ISO) P46471 (/ISO) P62196 (/ISO) P62334 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO)
Nucleoplasm GO:0005654
That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
7 A0A024R9G7 (/IDA) P54811 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA) Q6PL18 (/IDA) Q9SCN8 (/IDA) Q9ULI0 (/IDA) V9HW80 (/IDA)
Site of double-strand break GO:0035861
A region of a chromosome at which a DNA double-strand break has occurred. DNA damage signaling and repair proteins accumulate at the lesion to respond to the damage and repair the DNA to form a continuous DNA helix.
7 P03974 (/ISS) P23787 (/ISS) P46462 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS) Q3ZBT1 (/ISS) Q6GL04 (/ISS) Q7ZU99 (/ISS)
Nucleus GO:0005634
A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
6 P55072 (/TAS) Q94BQ2 (/TAS) Q9C5U3 (/TAS) Q9SEI2 (/TAS) Q9SEI3 (/TAS) Q9SSB5 (/TAS)
Nucleoplasm GO:0005654
That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
6 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS) Q6PL18 (/TAS)
Mitochondrion GO:0005739
A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
6 Q54PX1 (/ISS) Q8IQQ9 (/ISS) Q8MT03 (/ISS) Q8T4G5 (/ISS) Q9N3T5 (/ISS) Q9W4W8 (/ISS)
Chloroplast thylakoid membrane GO:0009535
The pigmented membrane of a chloroplast thylakoid. An example of this component is found in Arabidopsis thaliana.
6 Q39102 (/IDA) Q84WU8 (/IDA) Q8VZI8 (/IDA) Q8W585 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA) Q9LET7 (/IDA)
Membrane GO:0016020
A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
6 O88685 (/ISO) O88967 (/ISO) P46471 (/ISO) P62196 (/ISO) P62334 (/ISO) Q4Q1T9 (/ISO)
Proteasome complex GO:0000502
A large multisubunit complex which catalyzes protein degradation, found in eukaryotes, archaea and some bacteria. In eukaryotes, this complex consists of the barrel shaped proteasome core complex and one or two associated proteins or complexes that act in regulating entry into or exit from the core.
5 O88685 (/ISO) P46471 (/ISO) P62196 (/ISO) P62334 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO)
Mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005743
The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
5 P32795 (/IDA) P39925 (/IDA) P40341 (/IDA) Q8JZQ2 (/IDA) Q96TA2 (/IDA)
Peroxisome GO:0005777
A small organelle enclosed by a single membrane, and found in most eukaryotic cells. Contains peroxidases and other enzymes involved in a variety of metabolic processes including free radical detoxification, lipid catabolism and biosynthesis, and hydrogen peroxide metabolism.
5 A0A1D8PR43 (/ISO) O74941 (/ISO) Q4X1F5 (/ISO) Q5BL07 (/ISO) Q6FRE6 (/ISO)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
5 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS) P62195 (/TAS) P62333 (/TAS)
Extracellular exosome GO:0070062
A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.
5 O43933 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA) P62195 (/IDA) P62333 (/IDA) Q6PL18 (/IDA)
Extracellular exosome GO:0070062
A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.
5 P62196 (/ISO) P62334 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO) Q5BL07 (/ISO) Q8CDM1 (/ISO)
Cell wall GO:0005618
The rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal, most prokaryotic cells and some protozoan parasites, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis. In plants it is made of cellulose and, often, lignin; in fungi it is composed largely of polysaccharides; in bacteria it is composed of peptidoglycan; in protozoan parasites such as Giardia species, it's made of carbohydrates and proteins.
4 P54609 (/IDA) Q9LZF6 (/IDA) Q9MAK9 (/IDA) Q9SEI3 (/IDA)
Nucleolus GO:0005730
A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome.
4 P54609 (/IDA) Q07844 (/IDA) Q9MAK9 (/IDA) Q9SCN8 (/IDA)
M-AAA complex GO:0005745
Protease complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is involved in mitochondrial protein turnover and in processing of proteins imported into mitochondria.
4 P39925 (/IDA) P40341 (/IDA) Q8JZQ2 (/IDA) Q920A7 (/IDA)
Peroxisome GO:0005777
A small organelle enclosed by a single membrane, and found in most eukaryotic cells. Contains peroxidases and other enzymes involved in a variety of metabolic processes including free radical detoxification, lipid catabolism and biosynthesis, and hydrogen peroxide metabolism.
4 A0A0C4DG33 (/IDA) A0A1D8PR43 (/IDA) O43933 (/IDA) Q5BL07 (/IDA)
Proteasome regulatory particle, base subcomplex GO:0008540
The subcomplex of the proteasome regulatory particle that directly associates with the proteasome core complex.
4 O14126 (/ISO) O42931 (/ISO) O74445 (/ISO) P41836 (/ISO)
Plasmodesma GO:0009506
A fine cytoplasmic channel, found in all higher plants, that connects the cytoplasm of one cell to that of an adjacent cell.
4 F4IXH3 (/IDA) F4J3N2 (/IDA) P54609 (/IDA) Q9MAK9 (/IDA)
Plastid GO:0009536
Any member of a family of organelles found in the cytoplasm of plants and some protists, which are membrane-bounded and contain DNA. Plant plastids develop from a common type, the proplastid.
4 O22993 (/IDA) O80983 (/IDA) Q8VZI8 (/IDA) Q9FGM0 (/IDA)
Proteasome accessory complex GO:0022624
A protein complex, that caps one or both ends of the proteasome core complex and regulates entry into, or exit from, the proteasome core complex.
4 O88685 (/IDA) P46471 (/IDA) P62196 (/IDA) P62334 (/IDA)
P-body GO:0000932
A focus in the cytoplasm where mRNAs may become inactivated by decapping or some other mechanism. Protein and RNA localized to these foci are involved in mRNA degradation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), translational repression, and RNA-mediated gene silencing.
3 O88685 (/IDA) P35998 (/IDA) P46471 (/IDA)
Extracellular region GO:0005576
The space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane. This term covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite.
3 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS)
Nucleoplasm GO:0005654
That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
3 E9Q166 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO) Q8CDM1 (/ISO)
Cytoplasm GO:0005737
All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
3 P62196 (/ISO) Q4Q1T9 (/ISO) Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Mitochondrion GO:0005739
A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
3 Q387Q0 (/RCA) Q38AK2 (/RCA) Q584A7 (/RCA)
Mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005743
The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
3 A6QR12 (/ISS) O88967 (/ISS) Q925S8 (/ISS)
Peroxisomal membrane GO:0005778
The lipid bilayer surrounding a peroxisome.
3 D3ZZB2 (/IDA) O43933 (/IDA) P24004 (/IDA)
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0005789
The lipid bilayer surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum.
3 P25694 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA) Q01853 (/IDA)
Golgi apparatus GO:0005794
A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions.
3 P54609 (/IDA) Q9LZF6 (/IDA) Q9SCN8 (/IDA)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
3 P46471 (/ISO) Q01853 (/ISO) Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Chloroplast thylakoid GO:0009534
Sac-like membranous structures (cisternae) in a chloroplast combined into stacks (grana) and present singly in the stroma (stroma thylakoids or frets) as interconnections between grana. An example of this component is found in Arabidopsis thaliana.
3 Q39102 (/IDA) Q8W585 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA)
Inclusion body GO:0016234
A discrete intracellular part formed of aggregated molecules such as proteins or other biopolymers.
3 G3V6W6 (/IDA) P62198 (/IDA) Q32PW9 (/IDA)
Cytosolic proteasome complex GO:0031597
A proteasome complex found in the cytosol of a cell.
3 G3V6W6 (/IDA) P62198 (/IDA) Q32PW9 (/IDA)
VCP-NPL4-UFD1 AAA ATPase complex GO:0034098
A multiprotein ATPase complex required for the efficient dislocation of ER-lumenal degradation substrates, and their subsequent proteolysis by the proteasome. In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Npl4p and Ufd1p proteins. In mammals, this complex includes a hexamer of VCP/p97 (a cytosolic ATPase) and trimers of each of its cofactors UFD1L and NPL4 (NPLOC4) (e.g. a 6:3:3 stoichiometry).
3 P25694 (/IDA) P46462 (/IDA) Q01853 (/IDA)
VCP-NPL4-UFD1 AAA ATPase complex GO:0034098
A multiprotein ATPase complex required for the efficient dislocation of ER-lumenal degradation substrates, and their subsequent proteolysis by the proteasome. In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Npl4p and Ufd1p proteins. In mammals, this complex includes a hexamer of VCP/p97 (a cytosolic ATPase) and trimers of each of its cofactors UFD1L and NPL4 (NPLOC4) (e.g. a 6:3:3 stoichiometry).
3 P54811 (/IPI) P54812 (/IPI) Q01853 (/IPI)
Secretory granule lumen GO:0034774
The volume enclosed by the membrane of a secretory granule.
3 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS)
Phagocytic vesicle GO:0045335
A membrane-bounded intracellular vesicle that arises from the ingestion of particulate material by phagocytosis.
3 P90532 (/IDA) Q54PN7 (/IDA) Q86JA1 (/IDA)
Perinuclear region of cytoplasm GO:0048471
Cytoplasm situated near, or occurring around, the nucleus.
3 P54811 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA) Q63569 (/IDA)
Ficolin-1-rich granule lumen GO:1904813
Any membrane-enclosed lumen that is part of a ficolin-1-rich granule.
3 P17980 (/TAS) P35998 (/TAS) P55072 (/TAS)
Nuclear chromatin GO:0000790
The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome in the nucleus.
2 O14114 (/IDA) Q9P3A7 (/IDA)
Nuclear envelope GO:0005635
The double lipid bilayer enclosing the nucleus and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space, a gap of width 20-40 nm (also called the perinuclear space).
2 P41836 (/IDA) P54609 (/IDA)
Mitochondrion GO:0005739
A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
2 O88967 (/ISO) Q8JZQ2 (/ISO)
Mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005743
The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
2 O59824 (/ISO) O88967 (/ISO)
Mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005743
The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
2 Q381W2 (/RCA) Q57Y25 (/RCA)
Mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005743
The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
2 Q96TA2 (/TAS) Q9Y4W6 (/TAS)
Endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783
The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached).
2 P46462 (/IDA) P55072 (/IDA)
Cytosol GO:0005829
The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
2 P90532 (/ISS) Q01853 (/ISS)
Thylakoid GO:0009579
A membranous cellular structure that bears the photosynthetic pigments in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. In cyanobacteria thylakoids are of various shapes and are attached to, or continuous with, the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes they are flattened, membrane-bounded disk-like structures located in the chloroplasts; in the chloroplasts of higher plants the thylakoids form dense stacks called grana. Isolated thylakoid preparations can carry out photosynthetic electron transport and the associated phosphorylation.
2 Q8W585 (/IDA) Q9FH02 (/IDA)
Nuclear body GO:0016604
Extra-nucleolar nuclear domains usually visualized by confocal microscopy and fluorescent antibodies to specific proteins.
2 Q96I63 (/IDA) Q96TA2 (/IDA)
Preribosome, large subunit precursor GO:0030687
A preribosomal complex consisting of 27SA, 27SB, and/or 7S pre-rRNA, 5S rRNA, ribosomal proteins including late-associating large subunit proteins, and associated proteins; a precursor of the eukaryotic cytoplasmic large ribosomal subunit.
2 P32794 (/IDA) Q07844 (/IDA)
Derlin-1 retrotranslocation complex GO:0036513
A protein complex that functions in the retrotranslocation step of ERAD (ER-associated protein degradation), and includes at its core Derlin-1 oligomers forming a retrotranslocation channel.
2 P55072 (/IDA) Q01853 (/IDA)
Mitochondrial inner boundary membrane GO:0097002
The portion of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is not invaginated to form cristae. The inner boundary membrane lies parallel to the outer membrane.
2 P39925 (/IDA) P40341 (/IDA)
VCP-NSFL1C complex GO:1990730
A protein complex between the ATPase VCP (p97) and its cofactor p47 (NSFL1C). In human, the protein complex consists of one homotrimer of NSFL1C/p47 per homohexamer of VCP/p97.
2 P46462 (/IPI) Q01853 (/IPI)
Proteasome complex GO:0000502
A large multisubunit complex which catalyzes protein degradation, found in eukaryotes, archaea and some bacteria. In eukaryotes, this complex consists of the barrel shaped proteasome core complex and one or two associated proteins or complexes that act in regulating entry into or exit from the core.
1 Q7KN62 (/NAS)
Proteasome complex GO:0000502
A large multisubunit complex which catalyzes protein degradation, found in eukaryotes, archaea and some bacteria. In eukaryotes, this complex consists of the barrel shaped proteasome core complex and one or two associated proteins or complexes that act in regulating entry into or exit from the core.
1 P17980 (/TAS)
Chromatin GO:0000785
The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome.
1 P23787 (/IDA)
Chromatin GO:0000785
The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome.
1 Q6GL04 (/ISS)
Nuclear chromatin GO:0000790
The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome in the nucleus.
1 Q9C0W2 (/ISM)
Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase complex GO:0000836
A multiprotein complex that recognizes and ubiquitinates proteins with misfolded luminal and membrane domains during ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). In S. cerevisiae, this complex contains the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1p. In mammals, this complex contains the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 (Synoviolin) or AMFR (gp78).
1 Q9P3A7 (/ISO)
Doa10p ubiquitin ligase complex GO:0000837
A multiprotein complex that recognizes and ubiquitinates membrane proteins with misfolded cytosolic domains during ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). In S. cerevisiae, this complex contains the ubiquitin ligase Ssm4p/Doa10p.
1 P25694 (/IDA)
Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase ERAD-L complex GO:0000839
A multiprotein complex that recognizes and ubiquitinates proteins with misfolded luminal domains during ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). In S. cerevisiae, this complex contains the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1p.
1 P25694 (/IDA)
P-body GO:0000932
A focus in the cytoplasm where mRNAs may become inactivated by decapping or some other mechanism. Protein and RNA localized to these foci are involved in mRNA degradation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), translational repression, and RNA-mediated gene silencing.
1 P46471 (/ISO)
Extracellular space GO:0005615
That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.
1 P90532 (/RCA)
Intracellular GO:0005622
The living contents of a cell; the matter contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane, usually taken to exclude large vacuoles and masses of secretory or ingested material. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm.
1 P32794 (/IDA)
Holo TFIIH complex GO:0005675
A complex that is capable of kinase activity directed towards the C-terminal Domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and is essential for initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro. It is composed of the core TFIIH complex and the TFIIK complex.
1 P62196 (/ISO)
Polytene chromosome GO:0005700
A type of chromosome in a polyploid cell, formed when multiple copies of homologous chromosomes are aligned side by side to give a giant chromosome in which distinct chromosome bands are readily visible.
1 Q7KMQ0 (/IDA)
Nucleolus GO:0005730
A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome.
1 O14325 (/ISO)
Nucleolus GO:0005730
A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome.
1 Q54SY2 (/ISS)
Cytoplasm GO:0005737
All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
1 P35998 (/TAS)
Mitochondrion GO:0005739
A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
1 Q9Y4W6 (/TAS)
M-AAA complex GO:0005745
Protease complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is involved in mitochondrial protein turnover and in processing of proteins imported into mitochondria.
1 Q9HGM3 (/ISO)
Peroxisome GO:0005777
A small organelle enclosed by a single membrane, and found in most eukaryotic cells. Contains peroxidases and other enzymes involved in a variety of metabolic processes including free radical detoxification, lipid catabolism and biosynthesis, and hydrogen peroxide metabolism.
1 Q9VUC7 (/ISS)
Peroxisomal membrane GO:0005778
The lipid bilayer surrounding a peroxisome.
1 Q5BL07 (/ISO)
Endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783
The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached).
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783
The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached).
1 Q01853 (/ISS)
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0005789
The lipid bilayer surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0005789
The lipid bilayer surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Lipid particle GO:0005811
An intracellular non-membrane-bounded organelle comprising a matrix of coalesced lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. May include associated proteins.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Lipid particle GO:0005811
An intracellular non-membrane-bounded organelle comprising a matrix of coalesced lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. May include associated proteins.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Spindle GO:0005819
The array of microtubules and associated molecules that forms between opposite poles of a eukaryotic cell during mitosis or meiosis and serves to move the duplicated chromosomes apart.
1 P54609 (/IDA)
Proteasome regulatory particle GO:0005838
A multisubunit complex, which caps one or both ends of the proteasome core complex. This complex recognizes and unfolds ubiquitinated proteins, and translocates them to the proteasome core complex.
1 Q4Q0X8 (/ISO)
Phragmoplast GO:0009524
Fibrous structure (light microscope view) that arises between the daughter nuclei at telophase and within which the initial partition (cell plate), dividing the mother cell in two (cytokinesis), is formed. Appears at first as a spindle connected to the two nuclei, but later spreads laterally in the form of a ring. Consists of microtubules.
1 P54609 (/IDA)
Chloroplast inner membrane GO:0009706
The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the chloroplast envelope; also faces the chloroplast stroma.
1 O22993 (/IDA)
Cell surface GO:0009986
The external part of the cell wall and/or plasma membrane.
1 Q59WG3 (/IDA)
Integral component of membrane GO:0016021
The component of a membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
1 P0AAI3 (/IDA)
Integral component of membrane GO:0016021
The component of a membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
1 Q381W2 (/ISM)
Nuclear body GO:0016604
Extra-nucleolar nuclear domains usually visualized by confocal microscopy and fluorescent antibodies to specific proteins.
1 O88967 (/ISO)
Apicoplast GO:0020011
The plastid organelle found in apicomplexans.
1 P46468 (/IDA)
Cytosolic ribosome GO:0022626
A ribosome located in the cytosol.
1 P54609 (/IDA)
Cell septum GO:0030428
A structure composed of peptidoglycan and often chitin in addition to other materials. It usually forms perpendicular to the long axis of a cell or hypha and grows centripetally from the cell wall to the center of the cell and often functions in the compartmentalization of a cell into two daughter cells.
1 P37476 (/IDA)
Preribosome, large subunit precursor GO:0030687
A preribosomal complex consisting of 27SA, 27SB, and/or 7S pre-rRNA, 5S rRNA, ribosomal proteins including late-associating large subunit proteins, and associated proteins; a precursor of the eukaryotic cytoplasmic large ribosomal subunit.
1 P32794 (/IMP)
Cytoplasmic vesicle GO:0031410
A vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell.
1 P62195 (/IDA)
Cytoplasmic vesicle GO:0031410
A vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell.
1 P62196 (/ISO)
Nuclear proteasome complex GO:0031595
A proteasome found in the nucleus of a cell.
1 P62198 (/IDA)
I-AAA complex GO:0031942
Protease complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane whose catalytic residues lie on the intermembrane space side of the inner membrane; involved in mitochondrial protein turnover. Contains a subunit belonging to the AAA family of ATP-dependent metalloproteases.
1 P32795 (/IDA)
I-AAA complex GO:0031942
Protease complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane whose catalytic residues lie on the intermembrane space side of the inner membrane; involved in mitochondrial protein turnover. Contains a subunit belonging to the AAA family of ATP-dependent metalloproteases.
1 O59824 (/ISO)
Nuclear membrane GO:0031965
Either of the lipid bilayers that surround the nucleus and form the nuclear envelope; excludes the intermembrane space.
1 Q7KN62 (/IDA)
Mitochondrial membrane GO:0031966
Either of the lipid bilayers that surround the mitochondrion and form the mitochondrial envelope.
1 Q584A7 (/RCA)
Thylakoid lumen GO:0031977
The volume enclosed by a thylakoid membrane.
1 Q39102 (/IDA)
VCP-NPL4-UFD1 AAA ATPase complex GO:0034098
A multiprotein ATPase complex required for the efficient dislocation of ER-lumenal degradation substrates, and their subsequent proteolysis by the proteasome. In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Npl4p and Ufd1p proteins. In mammals, this complex includes a hexamer of VCP/p97 (a cytosolic ATPase) and trimers of each of its cofactors UFD1L and NPL4 (NPLOC4) (e.g. a 6:3:3 stoichiometry).
1 P55072 (/ISS)
VCP-NPL4-UFD1 AAA ATPase complex GO:0034098
A multiprotein ATPase complex required for the efficient dislocation of ER-lumenal degradation substrates, and their subsequent proteolysis by the proteasome. In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Npl4p and Ufd1p proteins. In mammals, this complex includes a hexamer of VCP/p97 (a cytosolic ATPase) and trimers of each of its cofactors UFD1L and NPL4 (NPLOC4) (e.g. a 6:3:3 stoichiometry).
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Proteasome storage granule GO:0034515
A multisubunit proteasome complex that localizes in the cytoplasm as dot-like structures when cells are in a quiescent state.
1 Q01939 (/IDA)
Azurophil granule lumen GO:0035578
The volume enclosed by the membrane of an azurophil granule, a primary lysosomal granule found in neutrophil granulocytes that contains a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes and is released into the extracellular fluid.
1 P55072 (/TAS)
Site of double-strand break GO:0035861
A region of a chromosome at which a DNA double-strand break has occurred. DNA damage signaling and repair proteins accumulate at the lesion to respond to the damage and repair the DNA to form a continuous DNA helix.
1 P55072 (/IDA)
Site of double-strand break GO:0035861
A region of a chromosome at which a DNA double-strand break has occurred. DNA damage signaling and repair proteins accumulate at the lesion to respond to the damage and repair the DNA to form a continuous DNA helix.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Cdc48p-Npl4p-Vms1p AAA ATPase complex GO:0036266
A multiprotein ATPase complex involved in the release of polyubiquitinated proteins, including those damaged by oxidative stress, from the outer mitochondria membrane into the cytoplasm where they are presented to the proteasome for proteolysis, a process also referred to as mitochondria-associated degradation (MAD). In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Npl4p and Vms1p.
1 P25694 (/IDA)
Cdc48p-Npl4p-Vms1p AAA ATPase complex GO:0036266
A multiprotein ATPase complex involved in the release of polyubiquitinated proteins, including those damaged by oxidative stress, from the outer mitochondria membrane into the cytoplasm where they are presented to the proteasome for proteolysis, a process also referred to as mitochondria-associated degradation (MAD). In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Npl4p and Vms1p.
1 Q9P3A7 (/ISO)
Derlin-1 retrotranslocation complex GO:0036513
A protein complex that functions in the retrotranslocation step of ERAD (ER-associated protein degradation), and includes at its core Derlin-1 oligomers forming a retrotranslocation channel.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Extrinsic component of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0042406
The component of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane consisting of gene products and protein complexes that are loosely bound to one of its surfaces, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
1 P40340 (/IDA)
P granule GO:0043186
A small cytoplasmic, non-membranous RNA/protein complex aggregates in the primordial germ cells of many higher eukaryotes.
1 Q7KN62 (/IDA)
Dendritic spine GO:0043197
A small, membranous protrusion from a dendrite that forms a postsynaptic compartment - typically receiving input from a single presynapse. They function as partially isolated biochemical and an electrical compartments. Spine morphology is variable including \thin\, \stubby\, \mushroom\, and \branched\, with a continuum of intermediate morphologies. They typically terminate in a bulb shape, linked to the dendritic shaft by a restriction. Spine remodeling is though to be involved in synaptic plasticity.
1 Q63347 (/IDA)
Myelin sheath GO:0043209
An electrically insulating fatty layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. It is an outgrowth of glial cells: Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons while oligodendrocytes supply it to those of the central nervous system.
1 Q01853 (/IDA)
Intracellular membrane-bounded organelle GO:0043231
Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.
1 P46462 (/IDA)
Intracellular membrane-bounded organelle GO:0043231
Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.
1 P55072 (/ISS)
Protein complex GO:0043234
A stable macromolecular complex composed (only) of two or more polypeptide subunits along with any covalently attached molecules (such as lipid anchors or oligosaccharide) or non-protein prosthetic groups (such as nucleotides or metal ions). Prosthetic group in this context refers to a tightly bound cofactor. The component polypeptide subunits may be identical.
1 P90532 (/IDA)
Protein complex GO:0043234
A stable macromolecular complex composed (only) of two or more polypeptide subunits along with any covalently attached molecules (such as lipid anchors or oligosaccharide) or non-protein prosthetic groups (such as nucleotides or metal ions). Prosthetic group in this context refers to a tightly bound cofactor. The component polypeptide subunits may be identical.
1 Q01853 (/IPI)
Autolysosome GO:0044754
A type of secondary lysosome in which a primary lysosome has fused with the outer membrane of an autophagosome. It is involved in the second step of autophagy in which it degrades contents with acidic lysosomal hydrolases.
1 Q7KN62 (/IDA)
Fusome GO:0045169
A large intracellular spectrin-rich structure that has been found in insect germline cells and mammalian hematopoietic cells. The fusome is an elongated, branched structure, formed from the spherical spectrosome organelle.
1 Q7KN62 (/IDA)
Apoplast GO:0048046
The cell membranes and intracellular regions in a plant are connected through plasmodesmata, and plants may be described as having two major compartments: the living symplast and the non-living apoplast. The apoplast is external to the plasma membrane and includes cell walls, intercellular spaces and the lumen of dead structures such as xylem vessels. Water and solutes pass freely through it.
1 P54609 (/IDA)
Perinuclear region of cytoplasm GO:0048471
Cytoplasm situated near, or occurring around, the nucleus.
1 Q01853 (/ISO)
Blood microparticle GO:0072562
A phospholipid microvesicle that is derived from any of several cell types, such as platelets, blood cells, endothelial cells, or others, and contains membrane receptors as well as other proteins characteristic of the parental cell. Microparticles are heterogeneous in size, and are characterized as microvesicles free of nucleic acids.
1 P62195 (/IDA)
Blood microparticle GO:0072562
A phospholipid microvesicle that is derived from any of several cell types, such as platelets, blood cells, endothelial cells, or others, and contains membrane receptors as well as other proteins characteristic of the parental cell. Microparticles are heterogeneous in size, and are characterized as microvesicles free of nucleic acids.
1 P62196 (/ISO)
Postsynapse GO:0098794
The part of a synapse that is part of the post-synaptic cell.
1 P62198 (/IDA)
ATPase complex GO:1904949
A protein complex which is capable of ATPase activity.
1 Q01853 (/IMP)
Mitotic spindle midzone GO:1990023
The area in the center of the anaphase spindle consisting of microtubules, microtubule bundling factors and kinesin motors where the spindle microtubules from opposite poles overlap in an antiparallel manner.
1 Q9P3A7 (/IDA)
RQC complex GO:1990112
A multiprotein complex that forms a stable complex with 60S ribosomal subunits containing stalled polypeptides and triggers their degradation (ribosomal quality control). In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Rkr1p, Tae2p, Rqc1p, Npl4p and Ufd1p proteins.
1 P25694 (/IDA)
RQC complex GO:1990112
A multiprotein complex that forms a stable complex with 60S ribosomal subunits containing stalled polypeptides and triggers their degradation (ribosomal quality control). In budding yeast, this complex includes Cdc48p, Rkr1p, Tae2p, Rqc1p, Npl4p and Ufd1p proteins.
1 Q9P3A7 (/ISO)
VCP-NSFL1C complex GO:1990730
A protein complex between the ATPase VCP (p97) and its cofactor p47 (NSFL1C). In human, the protein complex consists of one homotrimer of NSFL1C/p47 per homohexamer of VCP/p97.
1 P55072 (/ISS)